Aluminum Aluminum is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It has a concentration of about 8.2 percent (Craig et al 264). Aluminum “is malleable, ductile, and easily machined and cast; and has excellent corrosion resistance and durability” (http://minerals.usgs.gov/). It is evident in everyday life. Aluminum is a very useful abundant metal.
Metals have a very high ductility. Therefore metals can be easily manipulated compared to other solid materials. Malleability Malleability is the ability of solid materials to undergo compressive stress. Metals, also are highly malleable compared to non-metal materials. Therefore metals can be shaped using forming methods such as forging, rolling, extrusion and indenting.
The stainless steel is highly resistant to corrosion in different conditions and its strength. A wide range mechanical properties with perfect resistance to corrosion make stainless steel very popular in the world. The simple stainless steel alloy contains just iron and chromium. The predominant alloying elements of stainless steel is chromium. The concentration of chromium should be greater than 11 wt%.
Categories of stainless steel Stainless steel is normally classed as stainless steel if it contains 10% and above chromium. There are some steels that only contain 8% chromium and are classed as stainless steels. Stainless steel is used for its properties such as, erosion resistance and corrosion resistance. Some stainless steels such as type 422, have impact toughness and strength, with temperatures below 650 degrees Compared to alloy steels, stainless steel is harder to forge. This is due to it needing a higher pressure to create a forged component, even though its done at the same temperature as steel alloys.
Metal Ore An ore is any kind of rock or mineral from which a metal can be profitably extracted. Metals are rarely found uncombined (as elements) in nature. They are nearly always present in the forms of compounds, often where the metal is chemically joined with oxygen. Only the most unreactive metals, like silver and gold will be found pure. The most common metals are oxides and sulphides.
The other phases of the particle are normally the most strong strengthening agent .This phase of particle is practically very high strength in the engineering materials. This phase of particle can controls properties of the alloy by the shape, size and amount. This phase is call the second phase. At the end of the 19th century, cast iron was the important commercial alloy not already known to the western technology at the time of Romans. When age hardening of the aluminium was discovered by Wilm, during the years 1903-1911, it quickly became an important commercial alloy under the trade name Duralumin.
(Geary, 185) In its pure state, aluminum is quite weak compared to the other metals. However, its strength can be greatly increased by adding small amounts of alloying elements, heat-treating, or cold working. Only a small percentage of aluminum is used in its pure form. It is made into such items as electrical conductors, jewelry, and decorative trim for alliances and cars. A combination of the three techniques has produced aluminum alloys that, pound for pound, are stronger than structural steel.
The process now is used widely for steel production, with major productivity improvements and cost reductions. 5.27. In Table 5.8, D2 steel is listed as a more common tool and die material for most applications. Why is this so? Because it has high resistance to wear and cracking.
Hastelloy® W has excellent dissimilar welding characteristics. These named characteristics come from the elements that make up the alloy, which can be present in a variety of combinations. This particular alloy is the best choice when it comes to dissimilar alloy weldments. It also has good mechanical properties up to 982°C. Hastelloy® W has low coefficient of thermal expansion, and is used as a wrought alloy for a limited number of ring type applications in older gas turbine engines.
D-type transition metals are mostly consisted of important metals (commercially) and the rare and unimportant metals. They are ranged from very reactive to noble. The metals in this group all form a variety of different alloys. The f-type transition metals consists of lanthanides (rare earth metals) and actinides which is from thorium to lawrencium. These metals are very reactive.