), Correctional Contexts (4 ed., pp. 314 -323). New York: Oxford University Press. Brown, M. and Bloom, B. (2009).
Zhang, S. X., Roberts, R. E. L., & Callanan, V. J. (2006). Preventing parolees from returning to prison through community-based reintegration. Crime & Delinquency, 52(4), 551-571.
In F. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds. ), Criminological Theory: Past to Present 4th ed. (pp. 190). New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Agnew, R. (2011).
They could just put the prisoners to death, save money, and not have to rely on social programs. Already one can see that 183 years ago there was a pattern of neglect and a lack of dignity towards not only the criminal’s but the communities that must house these criminals (Price & Coleman, 2011). When officials attempted to establish a state penitentiary in Texas, bills were put down, but eventually after many years Huntsville Penitentiary ... ... middle of paper ... ...etrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118421/faq Fontana, T. (Producer) (1997–2003). Oz [Web]. Mears, D. P., Stewart, E. A., Siennick, S. E., & Simons, R. L. (2013).
These seem like cut and dry functions, but as of late some believe that prisons in the United States have failed in their attempts to separate and rehabilitate. Not only do prisons separate the criminals from the innocent, to be effective, according to Lappin and Greene, they must also separate the criminals from the worse criminals. Convicts in prison for non-violent offenses are not supposed to be housed with violent offenders. “Unfortunately, our prisons are becoming more and more overcrowded maki... ... middle of paper ... ... abuse offender policy options. (The field works.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wooldredge, J., PhD., & Seiter, B., PhD. (2013). Violent victimization among state prison inmates. Violence and Victims, 28(3), 531-51.
International journal of offenders therapy and comparative criminology 55(6), 843-845. doi: 10.1177 10306624X11416091. Pitts , J. M. A., Griffin , O.H., & Johnson , W.W. (2014) Contemporary prison overcrowding: Short term fixes to perpetual problem. Contemporary Justice Review, 17(1) , 124-139. doi: 10.1080/10282580. 2014. 883844.
A long-term study conducted by Bureau of Justice Statistics found that the average five-year recidivism rates of 404,638 prisoners released in 2005 is 76.6% among thirty states in America (Matthew, Alexia, & Howard, 2014, p. 1). In other words, most of the released prisoners did not escape the cycle of recidivism and were sent back to the prison after time. This indicates that the present American justice system, which focuses on punishment as Benson (2003) noted, fails to rehabilitate prisoners efficiently and is far from achieving the goal of reducing crime rates (p. 46). What is more, the recidivism of prisoners is becoming a great plague of society, because it not only imposes a threat to public safety but also places an enormous financial burden on taxpayers. According to a survey covering forty states in America, one prisoner would cost taxpayers 31,286 dollars each year on average (Henrichson & Delaney, 2012, p. 9).
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52, 622-640. Cockrell, J. F. (2013). Solitary confinement: The law today and the way forward. Law and Psychology Review, 37, 211-227. Pizarro, J. M. and Narag, R. E. (2008).
Ryan, M. (1996) Lobbying from Below. London: UCL Press. Burnett, R. and Farrell, G. (1994) Reported and Unreported Racial Incidents in Prisons, Occasional Paper, No.14. Oxford: University of Oxford Centre for Criminological Research. Gravett, S. (2007) Coping with Prison: A Guide to Practitioners on the Realities of Imprisonment.