There are many different mechanisms and theories today to help children cope with the life they are handed. How incarceration affects individual level When a parent is incarcerated, they do not just give up their freedom. They also reject and forsake the children and family they have left behind. These children suffer in many different ways. According to the American Bar Foundation, Roughly, half of all confined people in the United States are parents.
The challenges of children who grow up with parents whom were incarcerated at some point in their childhood can have a major effect on their life. The incarceration of parents can at times begin to affect the child even at birth. Now with prison nurseries the impregnated mother can keep her baby during her time in jail. With the loss of their parent the child can begin to develop behavioral problems with being obedient, temper tantrums, and the loss of simple social skills. Never learning to live in a society they are deprived of a normal social life.
Over 150,000 children in the United States have been separated from their mothers because of incarceration. These children face an extremely difficult situation. As the population of female inmates in jails and prisons continues to increase, protections will need to be put in place to preserve the mother-child bond during their sentence and in the process of release. Contact and visitation between mother and child can decrease the negative emotional, social and developmental effects that are caused by maternal incarceration. These measures will improve the children’s well being and create adults who are less likely to repeat their parents’ mistakes.
A whopping two million of America 's children have at least one parent in prison (Miller, Perryman, Markovitz, Franzen, Cochran, & Brown 2013). From 1991 to 2007 the number of children under the age of 18 with a mother in prison doubled, this led to an increase number of children residing with alternate caregivers, ie; grandparent, sister, or brother. Children with incarcerated parents are often called the “forgotten victims” of crime. This population often goes unnoticed as if they are hidden victims
Some of the major effects that are seen on children is the economic decline,…………… The majority of the time when a parent is in prison, it is the father. In many cases, the father had a job before being incarcerated and was the bread winner for his family (Nielsen, 2012 pg 239). This economic decline causes major stress on the family but mainly the child. With the loss of income, the mother or other caregiver is left with the burden of picking up the slack. Picking up the slack forces the caregiver to get two or more jobs; this keeps them from actually caring for their children.
According to the Custodial Mothers and Fathers and Their Child Support, a report released by U.S. Census Bureau, claimed that out of 12.2 million single parent families in 2012, more than 80% were single mother parents. For a long time, there are many children that have grown up in a single-parent home. Kids who are raised by one parent seems almost impossible to them but have become more common in today’s society. Regardless of the situation, children who grow up in a household with one biological parent instead of two biological parents are often more susceptible to risks that can be harmful and hard on the child when having to acknowledge them. Single parents are detrimental to a child’s life, because they are at a higher risks of experiencing mental, emotional, and social problems.
At times the child is at school while their parent is being taken away. This causes them to come home to an empty house, and oblivious to the arrest. It is laborious for young children to grasp what is happening to their parent, that's why it’s crucial for parents to clarify the situation. Only about twenty percent of parents offered an explanation about the imprisonment. Supplying the children affected by the incarceration of a parent with authentic statements gives them an understanding of their new conditions.
Wallerstein and Kelly (1980) observed and interviewed parents and children three times in five years, and reported an estimate of one third of the children come out of divorce unharmed. Another one third function adequately, but experience difficulties, and the remaining one third have severe upsets in their developmental process. However the authors of the "Family in Transition", approach this finding with caution because the conclusions were made without comparing the children of two parent families. Never the less they do note there are overall trends in the functioning of children after divorce. The areas most often discussed are intellectual performance, juvenile delinquency and aggression, social and emotional well-being and cognition and perception, (A & J Skolnick p. 349).
Gretchen Newby (2006) attacks this subject in her article, “After Incarceration: Adolescent-Parent Reunification”. Of course, there are a lot of preceding measures to consider before reunification of an incarcerated parent and their child, including how their relationship was before the arrest, how often they were in contact while the parent was in prison, whether this parent attended programs such as rehabilitation or parenting classes, and of course how the caregiver feels about the child and parent relationship. Before reunifying them, it is also important for the child’s caregiver or social worker to talk to the child about the difficulties their parent may have faced while incarcerated, and that they may not act how the child wishes they would at first. It is also important to speak to the parent beforehand about what their child feels and expects. Tons of children experience reunification with an incarcerated parent, but we need to pay closer attention to how they’re being impacted through this.
Guidance is utilized by educators to help students develop problem solving skills. In addition, teachers need to know that diverse cultures have different customs when it comes to discipline and methods to teach problem solving skills Children from the young age are influenced by the teachings of their cultures through their parents and immediate family. This can be a conflict at school when children are raised from a different culture. When guiding children to become problem solvers, teachers can use methods to appropriately guide children. One of the techniques used by teachers are natural consequences to teach children real life situations.