ICT in Cameroon Primary Schools

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For ICT to be effective integrated in the school curriculum, one needs to understand its psychological foundation. The essence of integrating ICT in learning and teaching is to facilitate the process of knowledge acquisition (Mayer, 2003). Achieving this objective requires a clear comprehension of how individuals learn using various theories of learning and how the tool can be used to enhance the process. Roblyer (2006) states that “theories describe how learning should take place and hence strategies are derived from them”. Because ICTs are used to carry out learning strategies, ICT integration strategies have a learning theory base. Moreover, adopting technology integration initiatives and all the processes attached to them is implicitly suggesting the underpinning theory of learning that is realized by the use of the technology at hand (Jacobsen & Lock, 2004). Theories describe conditions required to make learning happen and the kinds of problems that interfere most with learning. When a teacher prepares a learning activity, he uses a particular method, which in turn is based on a learning theory (Bates & Poole, 2003). If he chooses to use ICT as part of the methodology, there is an underpinning belief of what technology does to facilitate the learning. A thorough understanding of a theory would yield a better preparation and approach to teaching (Jacobsen & Lock, 2004). Bates and Poole (2003) argue that how pupils learn is influenced or linked to the role of media technology in teaching, learning, planning, design, and delivery of technology-based courses. Roblyer (2003) observes that the appropriate role of technology depends on the teachers' or educators' perception of the goals of education itself and the appropriate instru...

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...ills. The work of the teacher is to find ways or approaches that will motivate learners to construct their knowledge based on prior knowledge, experience and their view of the real world. This theory rests on the assumption that knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their own experiences (Driscoll, 1994). The theory suggests that pupils, not the teacher, are the center and controller of learning. Instead of acquiring knowledge from the teacher, the pupil has multiple sources of information in the process of constructing knowledge (teacher, students, library, Internet, textbooks, etc.). From the perspective of constructivist theory, the use of technology in learning becomes more essential to fulfilling the demands of a constructivist approach. The pupil is able to use technology for searching, analyzing, and creating their knowledge.
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