The fourth chapter of City Politics by Dennis R. Judd & Todd Swanstrom covers the rise of "Reform Politics" with many local governments during the first half of the 1900s as a way to combat the entrenched political machines that took control of many large city governments in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Over the course of the chapter, Judd & Swanstrom quickly cover the history of the "reform movement" with different examples of how the reform movement affected city politics in different areas.
There have been many changes that have been made in response to what has happened in reference to American Cities. First, there was the Fair housing act. This act helped to stop discrimination against African Americans and other minorities. The purpose of the law is to defend every American’s essential right to fair housing—the choices of where to live and whether to own a home, for instance, it did not take account based on race, disability, and the numerous other threatened
After the American Civil War ended in 1865 more jobs and education became available for black. The blacks had finally created a middle class in America. Those blacks were expecting to be treated and have the same life as white Americans. In 1896 equal rights for all races came to a halt when the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court ruled racial segregations acceptable. Separate, but ‘equal’ was their motto. African-Americans in the south were met with harsh conditions for whites as labor needed was reduced. Because of this, more blacks started moving to the north because it was considered less vicious. The north allowed all adult men voting rights and provided better education for African-Americans. More jobs became available thanks to World War 1 and the industrial revolution. This became known as the Great Migration and brought more than seven million African-Americans to the North. What was housing like in Harlem? Housing in Harlem was originally intended for white workers to commute to the city, but developers built houses faster than enough transportation causing middle-class white people to leave. White landlords sold their properties to black estate agents like Philip A Payton and Henry C Parker. Development of midtown cause many blacks to move to Harlem; by 1920 the amount of blacks had doubled. When subways and roadways came to Harlem, most of the country’s best black artist, ...
At the heart of the problem was segregation. Segregation is the act of separating a certain person or faction from the main group. In America’s case segregation was practiced on minorities such as African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. The full force of segregation was brought down on African-Americans. Segregation was based on shear hatred of blacks by white Americans. The majority of them derived their hatred for African-Americans from their parents. This hatred was applied to all aspects of black people’s lives, they couldn’t do the most mundane activity without some sort of segregation. Everything from water fountains to public schools were under the influence of segregation.
Another factor was segregation. As a northern city, Cleveland did not institute de jure segregation, as many cities in the South had since after the Civil War and Reconstruction. But de facto segregation was very much a part of everyday life. Whites and minorities lived in different neighborhoods, were educated at different schools, and held different jobs. And while the African-American population stayed small in Cleveland, there were few issues. But it did not stay small for long; the Great Migration, or the exodus of African-Americans from the South to the North in search of better jobs and overall opportunities, and trying to escape the staunch racism and legal segregation of the South, brought millions of blacks to the industrial capitals of the North in the early part of the 20th century. The African-American population swelled, changing the dynamic of the city significantly. For long-established white Clevelanders, having to share jobs with the Eastern European immigrants was bad enough, but having blacks competing for jobs, living space and education on the same level as whites was not acceptable to them. De jure segregation did not begin per say, but roundabout ways of discriminating against the black community and putting them at extremes disadvantages started to take place on a massive scale.
Illinois and most notably Chicago are best known for their corrupt public officials. From the days of Cermak and the Daley political machine, corruption has become second nature to these “public servants”. From rigging elections to accepting ‘dirty’ donations to the alderman’s campaigns, corruption can be found from the very top of the political layer, down to the lowest government position. Those involved in the corruption have benefited greatly from their dirty deeds. Public residents aren’t directly aware of this corruption since they aren’t public officials, but most can attest to corruption when it involves the local police officers and the exploitation of the public.
Segregation is a process of separating a group of people either in the basis of class, race, religion, ethnicity or any other group from the society. The separation is often forceful. Societies will always have difference when it comes to political decisions, status of the economy and the origins in terms of race ("A History of Segregation in the United States History Essay", 2015). This study reviews the background information to racial residential segregation in the United States of America and the possible solutions to this. Racial residential segregation is usually as a result of self-segregation by blacks, moves by households that are white from neighborhoods
Over the course of this week our lessons began to transition from the explicit discrimination of the past to the current state of segregation and racial tensions, particularly in the St. Louis region. Two of the major issues discussed were hypersegregation and the role it played in the protest movement sparked by the shooting of Michael Brown.
In his book, Independent Cities, Robert J. Waste describes the major problems that cities are facing and how these are exacerbated by the lack of voice that American city’s have on the political stage. He states that cities have lack of representation in congress and the presidency, which often prevents their issues from receiving national attention. Waste describes failed federal policies that have attempted more top-down approaches and he also comments on state policy methods and their more successful bottom-up focus. In order to successfully eradicate the permanent crises that are tormenting entire regions, national, state and local level governments in conjunction with the citizenry need to work together to fuel a cultural transformation where urban issues are confronted rather than disregarded.
The actual city of St. Louis is broken into three main parts; the North Side, South City and the Central West End. The three areas combined have approximately eighty established neighborhoods. If you decide to add the western part of St. Louis County, this number is most likely to double.
East of St. Louis, 300 Indians went with British Frenchman, Jean Marie Ducharme (was a former St. Louisan) to attack Cahokia, while rest of command went with Hesse to attack St. Louis. Crossing north of the city, Hesse's forces encountered two unfortunate St. Louisans (at present day Fairgrounds Park). One man was killed and others captured. Many St. Louisans were out picking strawberries when the Indians caught them. Reports of the number killed outside the city's gates varying significantly from a few dozen to forty or more.
The Roman Empire had started at Anatolia. Byzantine Empire had lived between 330 and 1453. The Seljuk Empire had started with having most of Anatolia in the early part of 11th century. The Roman Empire, Byzantine and The Seljuk Empire, all of them have a special place in history. Also there are some similarities and differences among them in terms of their political and administrative structures, socio economic organization, daily life and regional hierarchy.
The communites that form the region of West St. Louis County share a strong interest in promotoing and fostering family-centered programs and maintaining a quality education for residents of all ages. Additionally, the region is known for its safe nieghborhoods and friendly communities that cradle a broad array of housing choices. The county offers residents of all lifetsyles and budgests everything from modestly
To begin, the article was written right after it was announced that the Rams were leaving Saint Louis, so that gave it the proper timing in which to write it. As well as that, there were and still are people who are curious about the financial state of the city since there won’t be an NFL team present anymore, and people living in Saint Louis will feel the impact of that. The writer, being on the staff of the Post-Dispatch may also feel obligated to write about this subject as well, since it has so much to do with the demographics of the audience that he writes for. All of those things influenced the manner in which the article was written, as well as the reason why it was published as an article on the St. Louis Post Dispatch’s