When Wilma was born prematurely, weighing only 4.5 pounds on June 23rd, 1940 she was not able to receive the proper medical attention she needed. She was turned away from the local hospital simply because the color of her skin. Although there was a local black doctor that would help take care of Wilma, her mother Blanche who was a maid and father Ed who was a railway porter, did not have enough money to pay the doctor. Wilma’s parents knew their daughter was extremely sick but with a family of twenty-two children it was hard for them to pay for anything. Wilma’s mother and family gave their best efforts to nurse her to health by themselves.
Many scientists believe that consciousness is made up of integrated information our bodies take in and that our brains were designed to think as a way to make sense of it all. By making sense of our surroundings, we're better able to survive and thrive as a species. This theory suggests that it's an evolutionary advantage that has been perfected over thousands of years. Thi s theory is rapidly gaining clout in the scientific community, primarily because it explains how different animals and people can have different levels of consciousness. It also explains what is consciousness used for on an evolutionary level — and why we would have it in the first place.
Harkening back to the story of Henrietta Lacks, one is quick to note that her descendants received none of the revenue generated from Lacks’s immortal cell line. In fact, her descendants could not even afford to buy into the very healthcare system that she revolutionized. Ultimately, it’s important to note that the medical companies themselves are primarily responsible for the results yielded from cell donations due to their rigorous work, though it’s quite evident that the donors themselves should receive a portion of the profits. Even still, other disadvantages to tissue collection linger throughout the practice of
Henrietta Lacks was a young African American mother of four children, living a peaceful life in Clover, Virginia in the 1950’s. She was diagnosed with a vicious case of cervical cancer and died on October 4th, 1951. Before she died, a surgeon took samples of her tumor without her knowledge or consent for scientific study. Scientist George Gey was attempting to grow cells that had been removed from the human body, but all the samples collected eventually died. Things changed when he received Henrietta’s tumor cells; unlike other cells, those taken from Henrietta’s tumor reproduced outside of her body long after being removed, creating an entire generation every twenty-four hours.
The family then moved back to the city and Sanger became a nurse. Their daughter would later die of pneumonia at a very young age due to horrible conditions at her boarding school. The two older sons would eventually grow to blame Sanger for her death and she would divorce her husband and maintain the company of several men after. Despite the number of suitors she acquires she will be single when she dies. While working as a nurse Sanger came across a woman by the name of Sadie Sachs (likely a compilation of many women) who became very ill after giving herself an abortion.
In February 2010, author and journalist Rebecca Skloot published a book, "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks," which included the stories surrounding the HeLa cell line as well as research into Henrietta Lacks' life. In 1951 a poor young black women, Henrietta Lacks was diagnosed with cervical cancer and at the time was treated in the “colored ward” or segregated division of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The procedure required samples of her cervix to be removed. Henrietta Lacks, the person who was the source of these cells was unaware of their removal. Her family was never informed about what had been accomplished with the use of her cells.
She soon died of cervical cancer in 1951. The source delves into the injustice that was done with Mrs.Lacks it says Not all of Henrietta Lacks died that day. She unknowingly left behind a piece of her that still lives today—it’s called the HeLa cell. Her cells were taken and used for medical research without her consent. And for more than 20 years after her death Henrietta’s family would learn how science retrieved her cells and of her enormous contribution to medicine and to human life.
By combining the genes of dissimilar and unrelated species, permanently altering their genetic codes, novel organisms are created that will pass the genetic changes onto their offspring through heredity. Scientists are now snipping, inserting, recombining, rearranging, editing, and programming genetic material. Animal genes and even human genes are being inserted into plants or animals creating unimagined transgenic life forms. For the first time in history, human beings are becoming the architects of life. Bio-engineers will be creating tens of thousands of novel organisms over the next few years.
All living organisms contain cells and in order for them to grow, survive, and eventually reproduce, the cells in their body should be able to multiply. The repair of the damaged parts of different organisms also requires the cells to increase in number in order to replace the damaged ones. The growth of the cells of many organisms generally has 3 main phases; cell division, cell enlargement, and cell differentiation. The types of cell division are usually Meiosis and Mitosis, in which the latter maintains the chromosome number of parent cells to daughter cells. Mitosis is generally divided into five stages; ... ... middle of paper ... ..., and thus, energy will not be sufficient to power all of the cells.
Henrietta, as I read was an amazing woman who has a harsh life and also after she lost her life, it continued to be difficult. Henrietta kept her cancer from her family for some time and as stated in the book it was common for people to keep secrets about medical conditions (Skloot). I think Lacks is am amazing woman, not only for what she unknowingly did for the future of medicine but also as a mother and wife. She was such a strong woman and her legacy carry on and she story will be told all over. Back in the day research was done on people without them knowing just like what was done to Henrietta, but not to the same extent.