Freire’s philosophies concerning teachers learning, teaching, and reflecting on the process are cyclic in nature. He interwove theory, practice, and reflection into being an effective educator. Freiree quoted Francoss Jacob when he wrote “We are programmed, but to learn” (2005, p. 124). Freire had much to say about theory and practice, urging teachers to step away from their everyday world and observe closely and critically what is happening in that realm in order to renew one’s curiosity, what he referred to as “thinking the practice” (p. 140). Within this thinking about the practice, one begins to practice better. In addition to the practice, one must add scientifically-backed theory. Critical reflection of both the theory and practice illuminates the need for additional learning in order to begin the cycle again. Characteristics of the Teacher as a Learner Learning must begin with the teacher accepting the role of a learner by being willing to study and by being willing to apply oneself to becoming a professional educator, well prepared, and relentlessly endeavoring to advance one’s practice (Frere, 2005). As teachers apply themselves to becoming learners, then they can more aptly educate others. Teachers should not overlook professional preparation; however, they must also consider part of their efforts in scholarship to be constructing relationships with their students. In developing relationships with learners, Freire suggested spending time talking and listening to students in order to get to know them and to gain their participation in class. That admonition has been incorporated into practice by numerous other educators. While many of the strategies in Tom Daly’s book were simple classroom management tips (2013)... ... middle of paper ... ...imensions of reflection: A conceptual and contextual analysis. International Journal of Progressive Education, 1(3), 58-77. Paul R. (1995). Critical thinking: How to prepare students for a rapidly changing world. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Shor, I. (1986, November). Equality is excellence: Transforming teacher education and the learning process. Harvard Review, 36(4), 406-426. Smith, M. K. (2001, 2013). Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning. In The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved from [http://infed.org/mobi/chris-argyris-theories-of-action-double-loop-learning-and-organizational-learning/ Zeichner, K. & Noffke, S. (2001). Practioneer research. In V. Richardson (Ed.). Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed., p. 298-300). Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association.
The section goes into detail about practices that have been designed to prepare future teachers. In chapter one, Feiman-Nemser discusses three phases of learning to teach: preservice education programs, induction, and on the job experience. She makes three arguments that serve to set the tone for the remainder of the section. First, she argues that the manner in which teachers learn to teach in a preparation program does not agree with what professionals know about learning. Principally, many preservice programs ignore basics of learning while preparing teachers for their future classroom. Secondly, the author discusses how unintended lessons may contribute more to a person’s classroom philosophy than formal courses. For example, a teacher may learn steps that are convenient or helpful, which are not based on best practices. Teachers often learn how to manage a classroom based on experience or observation, but it may not be the best way to handle the situation. The preservice program often contains an element of practicum and student teaching, which can be effective, but can also lead to bad habits based on short-sighted goals and incorrect observations and experiences. The first chapter also investigates the induction phase and identifies differences of thought and implementation that can hinder a program’s effectiveness. Finally, the author discusses the in-service
Despite the widespread differences in understanding there are similarities in their delivery. The importance of thoughtfulness for teachers and students cannot be understated, few would suggest that teachers should practice without questioning their ideas (Hébert, 2015). With the importance of reflection in mind, why is it that there is not an agreed upon approach to reflective practice? Finlay (2008) describes Schön’s work as almost ‘canonical’ in the field and yet she and many others have been shown to criticise Schönian theory. Despite the critiques of each theory what is essentially important is that reflection is key to growth as a practitioner. Conversely, practitioners that engage in reflection do not automatically develop to become good teachers (McLaughlin, 1999). The importance of criticality in reflection is key, no matter how uncomfortable the lessons learned are. Finally, Schön (1983: 61) expresses the view that ‘Through reflection, practitioners can surface and criticize the tacit understandings that have grown up around the repetitive experiences of a specialized practice, and can make new sense of the situations of uncertainty or uniqueness which he may allow himself to
According to Paul (1999), reflective practice has become a dominant paradigm in second language teacher education in recent years. Further, Biggs (2003) cited that learning new technique for teacing is like the fish that provides a meal for today which same as reflective practice that acts as the net that provides the meal for the rest of one’s life. To begin with, reflective practice has been a major movement since the eighties in teacher education (Calderhead, 1989; Cruickshank &Applegate, 1981; Gore, 1987; Zeichner, 1987). Even more, research acknowledges a number of potential benefits that arise from reflecting on ones’ teaching both for pre-service and in-service teachers (Bailey, 1997; Cruickshank, 1987; Mckay, 2002; Oterman and Kottamp,
According to Barbara Larrive, a teacher needs to be able to flexible with the changing aspects of society and the challenges that are presented to them. For a person to be able to do that, reflection on previous work and processes need to be critically considered and reflected on (293-294). The reflection process is most useful when teachers are able to engage in critical reflection and continue with ongoing discovery so that they stay trapped in “unexamined judgments, interpretations, assumptions, and expectation...
Pollard (2014, p.76) while taking great inspirations from Dewey (1933, p.3-17), defines ‘reflective teaching’ as a practice which “is applied in a cyclical or spiraling process, in which the teacher monitors, evaluate and revise their own practice continuously”. Dewey (as cited in Pollard, 2014, p.75) who contrasted ‘routine action’ with ‘reflective action’, points out that routine actions is determined through the use of habitual, authoritative measures as well as being based on ‘institutional definitions and expectations’. Pollard (2014, p.75) along with Dewey share the same opinion and criticize this practice as “relatively static and is thus unresponsive to changing priorities and circumstances”. On the hand, they underline the positive implications of ‘reflective teaching’, stating that it represents “a willingness to engage in constant self-appraisal and development. Among other things, ‘reflective teaching’ implies flexibility, rigorous analysis, and social awareness” (Pollard, 2014,
Group Interaction – “The effective teacher knows how to bring the class to order quickly, explain rules and procedures, find out important information about the students and let them know what to expect in the coming days” (p. 8). Teachers who exhibit good group interaction are able to control the class. More than that, they are able to stimulate and direct class discussions in ways that encourage independent thinking and the appreciation of outside views. They can gauge whether or not the class is following the material and are able to sense students’ motivation and play to them to increase comprehension. They use humor and wit to connect with students and keep them engaged even during the less lively
Everyone’s witnessed a teacher in action in one form or another. Whether they sat in the classic classroom learning their numbers from the chalkboard or were engaged in an individual activity guided by a mentor in the field, every time there is a teacher present. Growing up, this was my perception of teacher, that everyone could be one. And while I still believe there in truth in that statement, my own studies and setting off on the path to becoming an educator have shown me that some of the finer details of teaching have been glossed over from the student’s point of view. Being a teacher requires self-reflection and development of a philosophy of education to guide and focus the responsibility and decisions a teacher has to make. With new information every day, as a future educator, I am developing my own perspective on the philosophy of education, the purpose of education, an individual pedagogy and thoughts on the relationship I
...ave to agree that, “it is also important for teachers to reflect on their own teaching with their students and with other teachers.” (Darling 2003, p. 164) The fact is an educator never truly knows how good they are educating others until they are able to get feedback from their students and their fellow teachers. When an educator has “activities that encourage a reflective and strategic stance toward learning should be embedded in the regular activities of a classroom” (Darling, 2003, p. 164), students are taught from the beginning how to learn and critique themselves then as time goes on there is an easier process in learning from an educator versus the struggle of knowing what is expected by the educator in the classroom Metacognition is only as good as the one who is thinking about one’s own thinks as is a student is only as good as the educator who taught them.
In the second week of this course we discussed professionalism and our commitment to students. A lot of the sources read during that week addressed why we decided to become teachers, how we would keep our fire for the field of education burning and how our passion and enthusiasm would impact
Along these two weeks we have been prompt to make a recall to our own way of learning and why we became a teacher: Was it because coincidence, due to life circumstances, maybe because family tradition, was it a conscious decision or because someone influenced us? Whatever the answer is, we have to face reality and be conscious that being a teacher does not only means to teach a lesson and asses students learning. It requires playing the different roles a teacher must perform whenever is needed and required by our learners, identify our pupils needs and preferences, respecting their integrity and individuality but influencing and motivating them to improve themselves and become independent.