Freedom Riders

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Freedom Riders “Freedom Riders” were a group of people, both black and white, who were civil rights activists from the North who “meant to demonstrate that segregated travel on interstate buses, even though banned by an I.C.C. Ruling, were still being enforced throughout much of the South” (The South 16). The Riders attempted to prove this by having a dozen or so white and black Freedom Riders board buses in the North and travel through Southern cities. This was all “a coldly calculated attempt to speed up integration by goading the South, forcing the Southern extremists to explode their tempers” ('Freedom Riders' 20). The author of the Newsweek article stated this as the Southern opinion of the reason for the Freedom Riders. The Southern opposition, inadvertently proving the Freedom Riders' point, made sure that most of the rides ended in violence. A U.S. Supreme Court decision, made in December 1960, stated that “Interstate passengers have … a right to expect that ... service would be rendered without discrimination, as prohibited by the Interstate Commerce Act” ('Freedom Riders' 18). This law was geared towards integration on public transportation. To get around this statement, the Alabama police charged those who tried to fight segregation standards with “disturbing the peace.” The Alabama police considered disturbing the peace to be “any person who disturbs the peace of others by violent, profane, indecent, offensive, or boisterous conduct calculated to provoke a breach of the peace shall be guilty of a misdemeanor” ('Freedom Riders' 18). In essence, policemen could arrest people for anything they sought fit. These two laws composed a struggle between integrationists and segregationists. The Freedom Riders a... ... middle of paper ... ...ical section of the Undergrad. For the book review, we looked for subject headings within the Book Review Digest under “segregation” to find an author and searched for the author's name to find reviews. We focused on one event in Alabama to make sure the paper was specific enough. Actual Photograph taken from the breaking up of a Freedom Ride. Works Cited Eisen, David J. “The Non-Violent Ideology.” New Republic July 1962: 22-23. “'Freedom Riders' Force a Test, State Laws or U.S. Law in Segregated South?” Newsweek 5 June 1961: 18-22. Peck, James. Freedom Ride. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962. “State is Warned.” New York Times 23 May 1961: 1,26. “The South: Trouble in Alabama.” Time 26 May 1961: 16-7. Wilkinson, Doris Y., ed. Black Revolt: Strategies of Protest. Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corporations, 1969.

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