Opportunistic fungal infections risk has greatly increased in severely immunocomsuppressed (Kouzmanov et al, 2002) and cancer patients (Hussein-Al-Ali et al, 2014). An obvious probability of immunocompr... ... middle of paper ... ...erapeutic response assessment (Segal, 2008). 9.0 CONCLUSION Although there are a lot of advances in finding the best antifungal as human therapy, AmB is still founded to be the antifungal agent that is the most effective. Although it comes with various toxicity effects and administration problems, AmB is still chosen for most systemic mycosis, especially when the infection occur in the immunocompromised patients (Medoff et al, 1983). On the other hand, surveillance of diagnosis must be taken into consideration in order to be able to do identification earlier in high risk of fungal infection patients.
oryzae is a major diseases of rice, recorded with an annual loss of production up to 20-50 % [3-5]. At the phenotypic level, symptomic variations in natural population are generally observed after pathogen infection which is co related to the genetic diversity in host plants. Bacterial blight is prevalent and widespread especially in rice cultivating countries of South and South East Asia. For combating the disease, the most effective and economical measure is exploitation of host mediated resistance as compared to chemical control with its ill effects to natural environment. Till date, more than 38 R genes for BB resistance have been reported [6, 7].
The virulence in pathogen populations can change relatively quickly. More research on the identification of host resistance genes as well as virulence factors in the pathogen needs to be completed to aid in the development of resistant germplasm. This also includes the constant monitoring of new pathogen pathotypes. However, an integrated management of clubroot should be used which is based on incorporation of multiple management strategies and should allow a sustainable control of this disease. A program to educate growers on all aspects of clubroot disease management should be created to effectively provide information regarding the latest management strategies and prevent the spread and development of this devastating disease.
Cholera is a severe life threatening acute diarrhoeal disease which occurs at epidemic level. The disease is characterized by the sudden onset of nausea, vomiting and profuse watery (rice water) diarrhoea. Death may usually follows due to dehydration (briefly, excessive loss of body fluids with circulatory collapse), often within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms if untreated. It is a major public health concern in many developing countries especially in the Southern parts of Asia, parts of poverty driven Africa and underdeveloped Latin
Review Topic: Fusarium Head Blight Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), is a complex fungal disease that caused by Fusarium graminearum Schw. [teleomorph: Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch], also known as head scab or scab. This disease is severe devastating cereal crop in including of wheat (Triticum aestivum), oat (Avena sativa), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), and ear and stalk rot of maize (Zea mays). The infected crop by this particular disease can lead to severely yield loss and cruel reduction in grain quality.
It can be passed on to subsequent generations and can control gene expressions by inhibiting transcription epigenetically, a process known as silencing. Heterochromatin is able to suppress recombination between interspersed DNA repeats. This prevents non-homologous recombination, which may result in copy number variations in gene clusters and give rise to genetic diseases. In flowering plants like Arabidopsis (which will mainly be the focus of this essay), cytosine methylation is abundant in heterochromatic regions, and plays an important role in epigenetic regulation of genomes. DNA methylation in such genomes can affect cytosine residues in 3 different contexts: CG, CHG and CHH, where H can be C, T or A.
Intensive cultivation of castor without proper crop rotation led to heavy incidence of pests and diseases. More than 60 species of insect pests and 150 pathogens have been reported to cause damage to castor (Rai 1976). Pathogens affecting castor include fungi, bacteria and nematodes which cause diseases at different crop growth stages (Raoof and Nageswar Rao 1999). Among insect pests that affect castor, red hairy caterpillar, castor semilooper, shoot and capsule borer, tobacco caterpillar, jassids, whitefly, red spider mite and thrips cause significant economic loss. Among diseases, seedling blight, Alternaria blight, Cercospora leaf spot, rust, Fusarium wilt, root rot, grey rot, bacterial leaf blight and nematodes cause significant yield losses.
These toxins are compounds that many sorts of fungus produce (EFSA, 2013) and have negative impacts on humans, animals and crops, that according to Hussein and Brasel (2001), result in diseases and losses in the economy. The commonly access of most mycotoxins to food and animal feed is through contamination of cereals, plant material and other crops. (Aidoo, 2011). The fungus proliferation and production of mycotoxins happen under propitious environmental conditions, for instance, convenient moisture and temperature. (EFSA, 2013).
Genetic engineering produces foods of high quality and super foods that are less costly to produce grow rapid in large quantities and are vastly nutritious in micronutrients. This means that they have the ability to feed the growing population that is set grow to13billion by 2020. Genetic engineering in the agricultural sector has to a large extent lead to the modification of crops so that they can have superior agronomic characteristics s... ... middle of paper ... ...different seasons. • There are continuous tests carried out on genetically modified foods meaning that the food supplied in the market is healthy of great quality. The agricultural productivity gains in third world countries have significant impacts on the final poverty levels as there is universal increase in agricultural activities.
Along with strategies that can be utilized in health care to help reduce antibiotic resistance. For example, prescribing adjustments, sampling and testing; committees and education for staff and patients. Bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics is a major problem not only for the United States, but worldwide. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) the cause is related to “widespread overuse, as well as inappropriate use, of antibiotics that is fueling antibiotic resistance”. According to World Health Organization (2013) resistance is a global concern for several reasons; it impedes the control of infectious diseases, increases healthcare costs, and the death rate for patients with resistant bacterial infections is twice of those with non-resistant bacterial infections.