He proposed the theory known as ‘the law of effect’ (Catania, 1999). From this skinner developed operant conditioning as he had set out to identify the processes which made certain behaviours more or less likely to occur. Skinner tested animals by placing them in skinner boxes and allowed them to
(Iverson, 1992, P.1). Skinner studied this experiment and decided to come up with his own experiment through rats. Skinner took a different path than Thorndike did with his experiment. Skinner was mainly interested in how the rat behaved to finding food. Thorndike based his study on the object that was being experimented on and if it could escape by accomplishing the same task by learning to do it over and over again.
Paying closer attention, Pavlov noticed that the dogs would begin salivating when the research assistants entered the lab to feed the dogs (A). He noticed the dogs associating one stimulus with another and named this as classical conditioning. Years later Watson became curious whether or not the concept would be applicable to humans. For this, he began his study known as “Little Albert.” In Watson’s experiment, a young baby named Little Albert was presented with a with white rat. At the beginning of the experiment, Little Albert did not show fear towards the rat.
McLead (2007) explained that an operant condition means that using reinforcements given after a desired response could change behavior. There were three types of responses that can follow the behavior. Neutral operants, reinforces, and punishers were the three types of responses. According to McLead (2007), Skinner invented a box with levers and lights to test his theory. He placed a hungry rat inside where the rat learned to press the levels for different responses.
He believed that one must first observe a behavior in a certain environment or situation, then predict and determine the connection between the two. Much of his theory was based on the work of Ivan Pavlov’s observations through classical conditioning. Watson claimed that the process of classical conditioning could be used to explain any behavioral factor in human psychology. Classical conditioning involves the pairing of two different stimuli in producing a learning response from the participant. His belief on the topic was that single differences in behavior were caused by different experiences of learning.
What is Operant Conditioning? Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning, and explains why people voluntarily make changes in their behavior. (King, 2016) When people discover that certain actions cause certain consequences, they will voluntarily make changes to their behavior. In operant conditioning, there are several different ways that it occurs. Positive, negative, reinforcement, and punishment are all terms used in operant conditioning.
Further, attention is given to schedules of reinforcement used to establish and maintain behaviour. This topic will explore the application of Operant Conditioning where learning is controlled through reinforcement of certain stimulus and response patterns. Learning through Operant Conditioning To understand Operant Conditioning we must look at the laws that control the relationship between two variables: independent variables and dependent variables. When an experiment is conducted, the independent variable(s) are manipulated by the experimenter, and dependant variables are measured from the subjects. Skinners system described the independent variables as the type of reinforcement, and schedules of reinforcement, and the dependent va... ... middle of paper ... ...ses of the organisms to external stimuli.
Learning can happen in numerous ways, but all fall under the category of being either classical conditioning or operant conditioning when we are dealing with Psychology terms. These two habituation methods are very comparable in nature, but do possess very specific distinctions in their differences. The major difference between classical and operant conditioning is the type of behaviors being conditioned. Classical is focused more on reflex and automatic actions whereas operant deals more with voluntary actions. Classical and operant conditioning are also different in the way they are taught.
According to Kendra Cherry(2002), behaviorist believe that the way we respond/react to environmental stimuli shapes our behavior. In other words, the way one is brought up and the surroundings of the person are the things that shape the way the person behaves. Classical conditioning is a “type of learning”, which had a huge influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. It is a learning process which occurs through pairings of two or more types of stimuli’s. Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally present reflex.
Operant conditioning deals with more cognitive thought process. These two forms of learning have similarities and differences. Their similarities are that they both produce basic phenomena. One such phenomenon is acquisition. Both types of conditioning result in the inheritance of a behavior.