The overrepresentation of minority cultures in special education is the result of minority children being referred to special education who do not have a disability but rather a cultural barrier that hinders their learning. One of the most pressing issues in special education today is the overrepresentation of minorities. Overrepresentation means that there is a higher percentage of a certain group in special education than that of the same group in regular education. This overrepresentation indicates that children from minorities are being placed in special education not due to a disability, but due to a cultural or language barrier. . . . African American, Latino/a, and Native American students score less well on standardized tests. [Achievement] gaps persist in additional levels of achievement, such as grades and class rank. . . . In addition, African American students are more likely to be placed in special education classes and, once placed, are less likely to be mainstreamed or returned to regular classes (Davis, 96). Minorities are at a greater risk for being referred to special education. In his article, Hoover discusses risk ratios of minorities being moved to special education. Risk ratios are numbers that show how likely it is that an event will occur. A risk ratio of above one means that one particular event is more likely to happen than the control event, or one that has a risk ratio of less than one. “. . . Hispanic, African American, and American Indian students have risk ratios of 1.1, 1.34, and 1.53, respectively, as compared to the risk ratio of .86 for nonminority students. . .” (Hoover, 40). Children raised in poverty display behaviors that are sometimes mistaken for emotional and behavioral disorders. Chi... ... middle of paper ... ... placing children in special education costs money and resources that are already scarce. In order to provide the best education for all students, teachers must be careful to refer only those who are truly disabled and not simply different. Works Cited Davis, Bonnie M. How to Teach Students Who Don't Look like You: Culturally Responsive Teaching Strategies. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2012. Print. Hoover, John J. "Reducing Unnecessary Referrals: Guidlines for Teachers of Diverse Learners." Teaching Exceptional Children 44.5 (2012): 39-47. Print. Lieberman, Laurence M. Preserving Special Education For Those Who Need It. Newtonville, MA.: GloWorm Publications, 1988. Print. Ysseldyke, James E., and Robert Algozzine. The Legal Foundations of Special Education: A Practical Guide for Every Teacher. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2006. Print.
Among the predominant explanations offered for the existence of disproportionate ethnic representation in special education is the influence of poverty or socioeconomic disadvantage on the academic readiness of minority students. The National Research Council (NRC) reported on research that was conducted and concluded with a “definitive yes” that there are “biological and social/contextual contributors to early development that differ by race and that leave students differentially prepared to meet the cognitive and behavioral demands of schooling” (Skiba, et al. 131). The NRC suggested that the effects of a number of biological and social factors could be included under the broader heading of poverty. The relationship between disproportionality and poverty
The theme of the research is to discover why there is such a vast educational gap between minority and Caucasian students. Many American are unaware that such an educational gap actually exists among today’s students. This article informs us of alarming statics, such as of African American students representing a majority of the special education population, despite only making up roughly 40% of the student population. It also breaks down key events that contributed to the poor education that minority children are currently receiving. For example, in the past, it was illegal to educate African Americans and when it became legal to blacks were treated as second class students. They were segregated from their white counter parts and given hand-me-down textbooks. This article also discusses others factors that contributed to the poor education of minority students such as moral principles, socio-political, and economic stat. Despite the amount of time that has past, today’s schools are similar to the past. Minority children are still in second-rate learning environments while white students enjoy the comforts of first class school buildings and textbooks. In summary, the theme of this article was to bring attention to the educational gap among African-American, Latino, Asian, and other non-white students.
A minority student is generally classified as belonging to a lower-income family than the average white American, who is classified by earning a higher income. A student belonging to a low-income family will not have the same opportunities as a student from a high-income background. A student from a high-income family will be able to afford more study aids and supplies. A student from a low-income family, generally a minority, does not have access to these resources. Because they frequently cannot afford the same materials as their white counterparts, they generally do not perform as strongly on standardized tests. Wealthy families are generally very well educated. They have greater knowledge of how to guide their children in the right direction for academic success. Some can afford a private school with better teachers and a more comfortable learning environment. Paying for college is easier, and academics often take greater priority in these well-to-do households. Usually, poorer families have a harder time paying for college and supporting their children. Schools in low-income areas tend to lack funding for good teachers and supplies because of their financial situation. More often than not, the main goal of these families is to have their children get through high school so that they can begin ea...
Novel ideas in special education have unlocked the gate for developing a more heterogeneous and comprehensive approach of thinking about agendas in special education. While a number of topics have captured the attention of educators and advocates, perhaps one of the most anticipated areas of discussion continues to be the ED population. The overrepresentation of United States minority students identified ED in special education programs plagues schools and challenges researchers and practitioners. While Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 (IDEA) does specify guidelines, the process of identifying learners as ED and thus qualifying them for services can nevertheless be a subjective process. Research emboldens this subjective process and the issues surrounding the robust inequities among the ED population (Oswald & Coutino, 1999). Additionally, the next step is to openly critique, discuss and debated the issues and foster policy change. Moreover, this paper discusses the ED population and the critical issues regarding eligibility/labeling, FAPE, access to the general curriculum and continuum of placement.
What do we do with children with disabilities in the public school? Do we include them in the general education class with the “regular” learning population or do we separate them to learn in a special environment more suited to their needs? The problem is many people have argued what is most effective, full inclusion where students with all ranges of disabilities are included in regular education classes for the entire day, or partial inclusion where children spend part of their day in a regular education setting and the rest of the day in a special education or resource class for the opportunity to work in a smaller group setting on specific needs. The need for care for children with identified disabilities both physical and learning continues to grow and the controversy continues.
They only make about 25% in Advanced Placement classes, compared with 81% of white students and 87% of Asian American. Which they have been better prepared for college admission, but for minorities, there have been inequalities in the public school system. Rich, talks about a document with 37 pages that was issued by the Office for Civil Rights of the Department of Education and the “administration urges state officials, superintendents and Principals to monitor policies and facilities to make sure they are equitably distributed among students of all races” (Rich). That way student may have equal access to programs that the schools may offer. Motoko Rich continues making more references about the Education Department. And they have some data collected, which says that the gaps point to a constant inequality for minorities in the public school system. One point that the Education Department makes is black and Hispanic students are less likely to have teachers who do not meet all the requirements, which the state needs to meet.. There are schools with high groups of minorities and they are more likely to have portable buildings, than those who have a large number of
“to the maximum extent appropriate, handicapped children, including those children in public and private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not handicapped, and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of handicapped children from regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the handicap is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (P.L 94-142, Section 1412) (Villa p. 5).
Disproportionality, in special education, is the overrepresentation or under-representation of a particular population or demographic group relative to their presence in the overall student population (Ralabate, & Klotz, 2007). There are many factors thought to contribute to disproportionality: cultural differences, lack of appropriate assessment strategies, socioeconomic status, race, and gender (Kanaitsa, 2010).
The education system is arguably the most beneficial system in the world; however, it also contains many controversial practices. Proper funding, discrimination, and curriculum are just some of the problems in today’s education system. Everyone has a different opinion about what is best for our children and it is impossible to please everyone. As long as the educational system is in tact, then there will be confusion and debate within the system and its’ administrators. The only thing that can be done is attempting to make it so that everyone will benefit equally, but this is much more difficult than one would assume. I will focus on the aspect of discrimination on minorities within special education and more specifically the following questions: Does the special education system discriminate against minorities? If so, how? What can be done, if anything, to correct or improve this system?
Inclusion of all students in classrooms has been an ongoing issue for the past twenty-five years (Noll, 2013). The controversy is should special education students be placed in an inclusion setting or should they be placed in a special education classroom? If the answer is yes to all special education students being placed in inclusion, then how should the inclusion model look? Every students is to receive a free an appropriate education. According to the Individual Education Act (IDEA), all students should be placed in the Least Restrictive Learning Environment (Noll, 2013).
However, it still met with inconsistent criticism due to the myth that “positive intervention” doesn’t work and draining resources of regular courses. However, evidences shown prove the opposite effect. Special education is constant need of more funding – especially when it constantly gets budget cuts from congress and thus, schools are unable to keep up with the afford to provide the necessary need of special education (Wall 2014). So the myth of special education draining resources is the no way the truth. How could they be able to drained resources from other students if the programs themselves are in limited supply? Lack of understanding and easy to become a scapegoat for the blame of overall score of a school being poor is quite easy to pit the blame. Another reasoning is due to socialization—the label of being placed in special education is rather an unfortunate burden that could follow the child (Huerta 2015). Often times, stereotypes are attached and are considered inferior to other students, potentially adding onto potential fears. In order to improve any form of education for special education, funding a provided them resources should be considered the first thing to look
Inclusivity is a concept that has been spreading throughout the Australian education system. Many educators have discussed this concept in conferences, lunch rooms and union meetings. Australia has a diverse population. For this reason, that there are massive difference in the cultures and beliefs among the different races in Australia. It is necessary to develop an education system that acknowledges these differences and creates an ideal environment for all the students to learn. Inclusion involves adjusting the curriculum to include all students. It involves creating a school environment where those with disabilities and those without learn in the same classroom (Mackey, 2014). This means that it is different from special education. Inclusivity involves identifying education needs, making adjustments to the curriculum and coming up with a progressive program (Department of Education, 2013).
Really, special education is a about teaching, and finding the appropriate ways to teach those students who may need additional help or who may not be able to learn in a traditional classroom setting. 6.4 million children with disabilities between the ages of 3-21 receive special education services, so there is a real need for great special education teachers in schools. One thing I was really unaware of before taking this course is how many different types of students need special education, and I had a very narrow view of what a disability was. I am now aware that students who receive special education may have speech/language impairments, autism, intellectual disabilities, hearing or vision impairments, emotional disturbances, and many more. You cannot just categorize all students in special education into one category, they are individuals who have individual disabilities and obstacles to
...trated in the inner city where the worst, most impoverished schools are located. Therefore, even if they wish to attend school, they still receive have less access to good teachers and a good learning environment. And perhaps the most detrimental issue that minorities face is that they are often stigmatized as inferior. This causes them to be treated differently and it causes them to have low expectations for themselves, which leads to poor performance.