Distance Protection Algorithm for Three Terminal Transmission Lines Using Local Measurement
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When a short-circuit fault occurs on a transmission line, it should be located rapidly and correctly in order to repair the faulted section, minimize the transmission line outage time, and restore power delivery as soon as possible. Therefore, development of a robust and accurate fault location technique under various fault conditions is a highly important research area.
In some low power densities areas, utilities are connected to an existing transmission line using a tapped line because of economic advantages. Such a configuration of transmission lines presents great difficulty in the task of fault location when the fault resistance is not negligible due to the infeed currents from different sources.
So far, different fault location algorithms for three-terminal transmission lines have been developed [1–18]. Several algorithms assume data to be available at local terminal known as one-ended fault location techniques [1-3]. Infeed currents and fault resistances are sources of errors in these fault location algorithms. Many other algorithms use data from more than one terminal. In  synchronized voltage and current waveforms measured at all three terminals are used to calculate the fault location. The authors utilized the prefault measurements at three terminals to synchronize the waveforms. An alternative approach is presented in  which similarly uses measurements from all three terminals of the transmission line but does not require synchronized data from all terminals. Using an iterative algorithm, the synchronization error is estimated and the fault location is obtained. This algorithm considers the lumped model of the transmission line in its calculations. This simplification results in increase of the estimation erro...
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