Development of Industry Causes Enviromental pollution

explanatory Essay
1266 words
1266 words

An increase in industrial, agricultural practices and several anthropogenic activities adds a significant amount of heavy metals in soil and water. Presence of these metals beyond the threshold limit is toxic for the flora and fauna of the surroundings. So, there is a need for removing the harmful heavy metals from the environment. Conventional methods such as precipitation, evaporation, electroplating, ion exchange, membrane processes, etc. have been ineffective because of technical and economic issues. Biosorption is a potential bioremediation technique that can be used for the removal of pollutants from aqueous medium and soil by the help of biosorbents (algae, fungi, bacteria, plants etc.). For increasing the biosorption capacity of biosorbents, they can be modified physically, chemically and genetically. Various factors affect the biosorption activity such as initial pH, temperature, bacterial activities and kinetics. This study describes the bacterial adsorbents, their modification and mechanism for removal of copper. A brief description of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm modelling is provided in this paper.
Keywords: Bioremediation, biosorption, biosorbent, bacteria, heavy metals, copper.
The intensive development of industry, agricultural practices and modern technologies are leading to the release of significant amount of contaminants to the environment (Ayres, 1992). Metals are inorganic form of contaminants whose extensive use has caused significant environmental pollution that mainly affects soil, watercourses, atmosphere and living systems (Kasassi et al., 2008). Mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium (VI) are considered as toxic metals; whereas, copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc are not as toxic, but their e...

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In this essay, the author

  • Explains that industrial, agricultural, and anthropogenic activities add heavy metals to soil and water. biosorption is a potential bioremediation technique that can be used for the removal of pollutants by biosorbents.
  • Opines that increasing/activating the binding sites on the biomass surface could be an effective approach for enhancing biosorption capacity.
  • Explains that biosorbents lack specificity in metal-binding, which may cause difficulties in the recovery and recycling of the desired metals. genetic engineering has the potential to improve or redesign microorganisms, such as escherichia coli.
  • Explains immobilization techniques such as entrapment and cross linking have been found to be practical for biosorption. immobilizing microorganisms within a polymeric matrix has demonstrated greater potential, especially in packed or fluidized bed reactors.
  • Explains that metals are inorganic contaminants whose extensive use has caused significant environmental pollution. bioremediation through bioreduction and biosorption is an attractive option for removal of metal contaminants.
  • Explains that biosorbents are the microbial biomass responsible for inactive metal uptake. bacillus sp. has high metal sequestering properties among the bacteria, and staphylococcus saprophyticus is a beneficial bacterium for biosorption
  • Explains that the success of a chemical pretreatment is strongly dependent on the cellular components of the biomass.
  • Describes the toxicity, accumulation, and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities.
  • Introduces amt-bioclaim, a new wastewater treatment and metal recovery technology, in fundamental and applied biohydrometallurgy.
  • Explains the effects of the neurospora crassa gene on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by bacterial cells.
  • Describes the results of studies on chromium(vi) adsorption–desorption using immobilized fungal biomass.
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