Bridgewater, A.VAdvances in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, 2. New York: Blackie Academic and Professional Publishers; p. 1572–82. Mok WSL, AntalJr MJ (1992) Uncatalyzed solvolysis of whole biomass hemicellulose by hot compresses liquid water. Ind Eng Chem Res;31:1157–61. Mora-Pale M, Meli L, Doherty TV, Linhardt RJ, Dordick JS (2011) Roomtemperature ionic liquids as emerging solvents for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol.
The increase in industrial, agricultural practices and several anthropogenic activities adds a significant amount of heavy metals in soil and water. Presence of these metals beyond threshold limit is toxic for the flora and fauna of the surroundings. So, there is a need for removing the harmful heavy metals from the environment. Several methods such as precipitation, evaporation, electroplating, ion exchange, membrane processes etc. have been developed for the decontamination of heavy metals from environment.
Pandey, A., Nigam, P., Soccol, C.R., Soccol, V.T., Singh, D., Mohan, R. (2000). Advances in microbial amylases. BiotechnolApplBiochem31:135-152.
Appl Environ Microbiol 61, 34-39. Hahn, S.K. and Chang, Y.K. (1995) A themogravimetric analysis for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) quantification. Biotechnology Techniques 9, 873-878.
Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and will accumulate in the environment. High concentrations of heavy metals beyond threshold limits pose high risks to the environmental and human health. Apart from mining, other anthropogenic sources of heavy metals include smelting, electroplating, the use of pesticide and fertilizer in agriculture, industrial discharge etc. Should heavy metals enter the food chain through soil contamination they can cause adverse health problems such as lead poisoning, kidney and brain damage. Over the past few decades there have been increasing interests in development of technologies for the remediation of contaminated soils.
It can pose a threat to human health and environment due to its hazardous effect.Heavy metals existence in water can damage many of human part even in low concentration. Therefore removing heavy metals in water are very important.The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set up the maximum contamination levels (MCLs) of heavy metals for surface or groundw... ... middle of paper ... ...ructural polysaccharides,amido, amino, sulphydryl carboxyl groups, alcohols and ester.These functional groups substitute hydrogen ions for metal ionsin solution or donation of an electron pair to form complexes with the metal ions in solutions. Due to abundant binding groups, AWBs could be an enormous potential source of adsorbent materials for decontaminating heavy metals from wastewater (T.A.H. Nguyen a, et al,2013). The hydroxyl and carboxyl groups present in these biopolymers are the responsible of Cr(VI) reduction and subsequent Cr(III) adsorption (Marta López-García a, 2013) (Lin andWang, 2012; Wang and Lee, 2011).
1. Introduction: Metal contamination is a wide spread environmental problem in watercourses across the world, and management of its ecological influence on affected streams and rivers is still a major challenge (Luoma and Rainbow, 2008). Major sources of metal input to streams are mines. Mines are continuous sources of metal contamination, and even abandoned ones can still drain metals into streams and rivers (Abel, 1996; Brown, 1977; Byrne et al., 2010; Maret et al., 2011; Thornton, 1983; Tiimub et al., 2012). It is not easy to distinguish the effects of elevated bioavailabilities of metals on benthic macroinvertebrates in mining-affected streams without resource to complex multivariate statistics to relate any observed changes in community compositions to changes in an environmental parameter such as a measured metal concentration in some environmental component.
Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: Bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 101, 1150-1162. VIAMAJALA, S., PEYTON, B. M. & PETERSEN, J. N. 2003. Modeling chromate reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Development of a novel dual-enzyme kinetic model.
Environmental Microbiology, 10(10), 2550-2573. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01679.x Ryzhkova (jordan), ,E.P. (2003). Multiple functions of corrinoids in prokaryote biology. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 39(2), 115-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022525626986
Others are from weather, floods, and forest fires. This type of contamination is beyond mans control, and must be considered part of our atmosphere mercury levels. Scientist to this day have been struggling to separate the two from mans involvement to the natural output of mercury. Other mercury emission to our atmosphere is anthropogenic, which is mans influence of nature. Some of these included mining, coal plants, cement production plants, caustic soda production plants, ore processing, medical wastes, chemical production facilities, and wild fires.