Introduction Adolescence is the transition stage after childhood according to theories from researchers (Berk, 2010). Adolescents will encounter a number of distinctive developmental challenges which include coping with rapid changes in their bodies, managing their sexual importance, developing new affiliations, parent-child bonding and forecasting their academic and occupational expectations. Hence, this assignment will explore the physical and emotional developmental stages of human beings according to Erik Erikson’s theory, identification of two developmental issues in the given case study, the writer’s stage of development, and an overview of an article relating to the developmental stages. Discussion Physical changes This case study is about a 15 year old boy named Marcus who encounters a number of problems during his adolescent stage. One of Erik Erikson’s eight stages of human development is identified as identity versus role confusion which starts from adolescence. During this stage, an adolescent begins to question their role in life, and may experience role confusion about their future adult role (Berk, 2010). Erik Erikson states that the first sign of physical changes is puberty and each individual achieves puberty at different ages (Berk, 2010). As a male, Marcus is overweight, short and has a very high pitched voice in contrast to other boys’ physiques. His body image may be related to genes that run in his family and that makes him vulnerable to his peers who always make fun of his image. Therefore, any abnormalities must be detected early to avoid dysfunction in adulthood which may be difficult to tackle once the stage has passed (Goodman, McEwen, Dolan, Schafer-Kalkhoff & Adler, 2005). Emotional state ... ... middle of paper ... ...nal of Divorce & Remarriage, 51(2), 83-107. Berk, L. E. (2010). Development through the lifespan (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc. Bulanda, R. E., & Majumdar, D. (2009). Perceived parent–child relations and adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Child and Family Study, 18(7), 203-212. Crain, W. (2005). Theories of development: Concepts and applications (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Goodman, E., McEwen, B. S., Dolan, L. M., Schafer-Kalkhoff, T. & Adler, N. E. (2005). Social disadvantage and adolescent stress. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37(11), 484-492. Ohannessian, C. M. (2009). Media use and adolescent psychological adjustment: An examination of gender differences. Journal of Child and Family Study, 18(2), 582-593. Perry, D. G., & Pauletti, R. E. (2011). Gender and adolescent development. Journal of Research on Adolescent, 21(1), 61-74.
7). During puberty, adolescents will begin to have an increase in sex drive and sexual activity. They will begin to look at the opposite sex differently. Unfortunately most adolescents are not ready to deal with feelings of sexual interest, so they will react in awkward ways. Adolescents will tease one another about the opposite sex or make up stories about the opposite sex. Until they can understand and be comfortable with these new found feelings, they may have a difficult time talking to the opposite sex. Puberty also causes changes the adolescent’s self-image which will affect how the adolescent behaves. Self-image is dependent upon what changes may take place. Some adolescents begin to feel more mature and will seek out more independence. The final change during puberty is in the adolescents’ appearance which can change how others react to the teenager. An adolescent with acne, a high voice, or breast formation will appear different from their peers. This difference may lead to being made fun of, being ignored, or getting extra
Theories of child development have been researched and published over the years. These researches have been done by popular theorists four of whom are Piaget (1896 –1980), Vygotsky (1896 –1934), Ausubel (1918 –2008) and Kohlberg (1927 –1987). First and foremost let me define the term theory. A theory is a collection of related statements; the principal function of which is to summarize and explain observations. It is in a sense an invention designed to make sense of what we know or suspect. Developmental theory on the other hand is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. The writer in her essay will outline two theories of development Lawrence Kohlberg and Jean Piaget who spoke about the moral and cognitive development respectively.
This period is marked by physical, social, moral and emotional development (Davies, Hartdegen, Haxell, Le Geyt & Mercier, 2012). It is a time when the adolescent’s sense of self or identity is becoming much more clear and they are beginning to understand their role in society, starting to question the morals of others and contemplating their own moral and ethical beliefs (Davies et al., 2012). During this time Erik Erikson believed that adolescents are faced with the psychosocial stage of identity versus role confusion (Berk, 2008). Adolescents explore their values and role in society, overcoming this conflict to better understand their own identity, however if they do not fully overcome this conflict, Erikson believed that the adolescent would be confused about their values and future adult roles (Berk, 2008). This conflict was clearly demonstrated in my own development during the late teenage years when I experienced both the results of failing to overcome and then overcoming Erikson’s fifth psychosocial stage. At age eighteen I finished secondary school and began my tertiary studies, I had been accepted into the degree I had wanted to study since middle childhood, however I quickly learnt that I was enjoying neither my studies nor my experience of life in halls of residence. I discontinued my studies after only
Crain, W. (2011). Theories of development: Concepts and applications (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Sen, Suvarna. "ADOLESCENCE: A PERIOD OF STRESS AND STRAIN." Mental Health Reviews. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. . Fourth
Throughout our life, it can be marked by developmental changes in every domain of life: our physical, cognitive, social, personalities, and morals. Due to some important researchers such as Erickson, Freud, Piaget we are able to understand the development of each of these domains. Each stage of it’s life has it’s own difficulties and events that can determine a person’s life (Mogler, 2008). During the stages of adolescence, they are very vulnerable to a lot going on in their life such as fitting in, peers, family, school, activities, and society, and not to forget the ups and downs of puberty. Adolescence can be viewed as a huge part of many children’s lives where in this part of their life they try to find teenagers experience physical, cognitive,
In example, according to the Euro-Western view, adolescence is characterised by the interaction between the individual’s biological development and the demands requested by the industrial and post-industrial societies. Although adolescence is globally referred to as the period in life that groups individuals from 12 to 18 years, each individual’s development varies within different countries and cultures. According to the Euro-Western world, adolescence is a time in life that is characterised by experimentation, fun as well as personal growth that will later lead the individual to become a full adult. However, not every young individual experiences this positive and fun side of this life stage. In fact, adolescence is characterised by the hormonal changes that occur during puberty, which are argued to influence adolescents’ behaviour. Hall (cited in Drewery and Claiborne, 2010) argued that due to the effects caused by puberty, young individuals often experience tension, conflicts with their parents and peers, as well as critical mood changes. In line with Hall, Freud (cited in Drewery and Claiborne, 2010) argues that adolescence is a life stage in which it is hard to maintain a steady equilibrium. For these reasons, adolescence can still be considered a “problematic” stage in life, yet it is not necessary true that these conflicts are triggered by biological changes (Drewery and Claiborne,
Young adolescents can be described as ages 10-15 years old, but it is also considered that adolescence continues until the age of 25. During this time in an adolescent’s life there are many internal and external factors that affect the development of each individual. The influence that an adolescent’s peers, parents, and community have on them can be conflicting and therefore cause stress. Trying to meet the expectations of others during a time where one is going through so many forms of physical, psychological, and cognitive development can be trying for a middle school aged student. They are expected to focus on their education and the expectation of other outside influences while their bodies are growing and developing into an adult body. When development happens differently for these kids it can affect their psychological development if they focus too much on how fast, or slow they are developing in comparison to their peers. Some adolescents may let their peers influence their behaviors creating a problem with how they interact with others, or how they view themselves as a person. The middle school is a place where students are guided through these developmental experiences with the help of their peers, teachers, administrators, parents and community.
If yes, to what extent? Is there any significant relationship between FDI, domestic investment and the economic growth and development of the economy? If so, what is the nature of the relationship? This study therefore aims at providing answers to the above questions. b. MODEL SPECIFICATION
According to Erikson, human development occurs in eight stages though-out life. At each stage, individuals work through transitional conflicts a necessary mean of development by undertaking certain developmental tasks (Nugent, 2005, p. 99). The theories of Erik Erkson were used to analyze and interpret the responses.
Adolescence is a period of transition between the ages of 13 – 19, after childhood but before adulthood. Adolescence can be a difficult period in a teenager's life. Many teenagers do not know how to react or how to adapt to all of the physical, social, and psychological changes that occur during this period. Some adolescents pass through this period without problem, while for others, it is a period of torture, discomfort, and anxiety. With all the biological and social pressures that occur during adolescence, many teens fail to assume their identity. Sometimes family and society does not help to make this task easier. Challenges teenagers face due to biology and society are body image, hormonal changes, social and parental pressures, family problems, school pressures, alcohol, drug abuse, homosexuality, and suicide.
In America, the society runs on what teenagers want. From Nicki Minaj to the junior section at Sears, most of what the people see, hear, or touch is aimed at the teenagers. Being an adolescent is probably the most exciting and most popular time period in a person’s life. The teens seem to have it all, but what about the parents who raise them? The parents of the teenagers never get any credit during this time period, although they have every right to. Parents and teenagers should strive for a strong, lasting relationship for these years, though most times there isn’t one. The relationship between teenagers and parents is the most vital bond in the family because this relationship should and will prepare them for the next step in life.