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Construction of Gondwana

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Gondwana was the biggest continental crust unit on earth for more than two hundred million years. It took its shape at approximately 600 Ma during the Early Paleozoic, end of the Pan-African- Brasiliano orogeny and found to be in the southern hemisphere between at about the same time of formation (Trompette, 2000).

Gondwana was built of almost all of the landmass, nowadays found in southern hemisphere containing Africa, Australia, Antarctica, South America, Madagascar, Arabian Peninsula and India subcontinent. The later two landmasses mentioned have moved into the northern hemisphere. Furthermore, Florida and most of Central America, southern Europe and much of south-central and southeastern Asia all were parts of Gondwana at different times (Cocks, et al., 2013). North China, South China, Tarim and Annamia might also have been primary parts of Gondwana during the latest Precambrian. Even the large continents of Baltica and Siberia were very close to the superterrane in Late Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic times (Cocks, et al., 2013).

The Austrian geologist, Eduard Suess, invented the term, Gondwanaland, after the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations in the Gondwana area of the center of India, where the Gonds lived. These formations are similar to those of the same age on the Southern Hemisphere (Trompette, 2000).

Gondwana developed due to the impact of three lithospheric plates produced as cause of the split of the Rodinia supercontinent, at about 1000 and 700 Ma, end of the Mesoproterozoic to the beginning of the Neoproterozoic (Trompette, 2000).

Three orogeny events occurred during the formation of Gondwana, namely, East African Orogeny (800-650 Ma), Brasiliano Orogeny and Kuunga Orogeny. The two last events ov...

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... Torsvik, T.H., Crocks, L.R.M. (2013). Gondwana from top to base in space and time. Gondwana Research 24, 999-1030.

• Trompette, R. (2000) Gondwana evolution; its assembly at around 600 Ma. C.R. Academie Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des planets / Earth and Planetary Sciences 330, 305-315.

• Meert, J. G., Van Der Voo, R. (1997). The assembly of Gondwana 800-550 Ma. J. Geodynamics 23, 223-235.

• Fritz, H., Hauzenberger, C. A., Tenczer, V. (2012). East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania – South Kenya. Harvard University

• Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K. A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A. S.; Fowler, A. R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Johnson, P. R.; Kusky, T. M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R. J.; Viola, G. 2013-10-01

• Meert, J. G. (2000). Growing Gondwana and Rethinking Rodinia: A Paleomagnetic Perspective. Gondwana Research, 4, 279-288.
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