Complete Denture Essay

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Retention in complete denture
• Introduction
• Definition of complete denture
• Definition of retention
• The factors that affect the retention of the complete denture
• Explanation of each factor

Definition of complete denture:
Complete denture is a removable dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated structures of the maxilla and mandible
Definition of retention:
• It is the ability of the complete denture to resist displacement in a direction opposite that of insertion. Bouchere 12ed
• It is the resistance of denture to vertical movement away from tissue. prosthetic dentistry glossary
• It is the resistance of movement of denture from its basal seat especially in vertical direction.
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So, the increase in size of the denture bearing area will lead to the increase in the retention. the maxillary denture has more retention than the mandibular denture because the maxillary denture bearing area is 24 but the mandibular denture bearing area is 14 which is less than that of the maxillary denture

physiological factors: saliva: all the physical factors depend on the presence of the saliva between the denture and the mucosa. Therefore, according to Stephan law saliva should be viscous in order to have a good retention, according to Camphell, the fluid film thickness should be small to increase the retention and for Wilhem H.W showed that is very important to the denture retention to have less salivary glands
Physical factors :
It is the physical attraction of unlike molecule to one another. The ionic force between charged salivary glycoprotein and surface epithelium or acrylic resin will lead to the adhesion .and the closeness of adaptation to oral mucosa will increase the denture adhesion. With less contact angle there is more adhesion. Also adhesion depend on the viscosity of saliva because the wetting of the saliva on the denture base is less than on oral mucosa.
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mechanical factors:
if we design a denture whch utilize the presence of the bony undercuts the retention may increase , but we should care on the planing of the the path of insertion in order to benefit from this undercuts without traumatizing the underlying tissue during insertion and removale of the denture . there are two types of path of insertion to improve the retention . first , it is the single path of inserttion which use the labial undercuts , the second , it is the dual path of insertion which use the unilateral undercuts

muscular factors :
Oral and facial musculater : if the denture work in harmony with the muscle this will increase th retention . so , the buccul and ligual falanges should be shaped in a way that the musculater fits automaticlly , the polished surface should be well contured and the tooth should be in a neutral zone between the lips and the cheek
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