Comparison of the Maya Cities, Cahokia City and the cities in Upper Xingu The Maya Cities Cities of the Maya comprised of sites such as Coba, Caracol, Tikal, Cival, Motul de San Jose’ among others. In the ancient times, the populations in these cities were dispersed compared to other cities. These cities were ruled by kings who stayed in the palaces at the city centers. The palaces were the administrative sites for the cities. Public monuments were constructed to commemorate the ruling kings which were an attraction to more city dwellers. Another attraction to more residents was the suitable conditions for farming and access to trade routes. The layout of the Maya cities was quite a unique one. They had no formal plan and expansion was done …show more content…
The city was well laid out to show their skill in planning. The town centre had public plazas and buildings that were well structured with hand-built earthen mounds. Sacred meetings and ceremonies took place in the plazas. Residents constructed their houses in rows surrounding the city. The people of Cahokia engaged in farming, trade and hunting. The people of Cahokia engaged in long-distance trade involving items like pipestone, copper, marine shell among others. The city was cosmopolitan in nature due to influx of people who came to trade. With time, the population grew so much as a result of immigration and high birth rates. The Cahokians practiced human sacrifices attributed to the mound with mass burials. Residents of Cahokia engaged in farming to feed the city people i.e. the administrative leaders, religious leaders, traders and astronomers. The farmers were from the low economic class and were looked down upon by their leaders from the high society. Power was inherited in families disadvantaging members from the low social …show more content…
They were characterized by densely populated permanent communities (villages) governed by a political leader, the chief at the central location. Roads and bridges linked the communities. The cities were well planned to encourage urban development and offer sustainable growth. The villages also formed social groups with the same political and social territories. The chief was greatly respected and his person was sought whenever someone wanted to leave the village. The chief presided over religious functions ad ceremonies in the community. The post of the chief was hereditary. In these cities, monogamy was treasured and heads of monogamous families formed a union from which they controlled the rest in the farming exercise. Comparison of change in Pacific Northwest and Eastern North America Pacific Northwest The people in the Pacific Northwest were basically hunter and gatherers. Fishing was also an integral part of their lives. As life changed, especially at the late Holocene period, some of the people adopted a sedentary lifestyle but still maintained the hunting and gathering nature. The people in the Pacific Northwest believed in a spiritual world, a supernatural entity and had symbols and totems to represent figures in these unseen world. They always had a belief that they were surrounded by supernatural beings that had the ability to control the natural world. Music played a role in spirituality, to honor the ancestors and
The Mayans lived in Southern Mexico and Central America in their capital, Tikal, which is in present day Guatemala. The Mayans were known for their engineering, one structure they were famous for is their pyramid temple in Tikal (Document 1). This pyramid was the tallest structure in the Americas up until the 20th century and is still standing today. The government must have been strong and well organized in order to carry out such a large task. The Mayan religion had multiple gods and this pyramid was most likely devoted to one or used as a place for sacrifices. Another accomplishment of the Mayans was the creation of their calendar. An extra document that would be useful is one that explains how the calendar was created. The Mayans must have studied astronomy and math to a great length. Similar to the Ancient Egyptians, they wrote with symbols and pictures known as glyphs that were used in the calendar. These glyphs were gods, such as Zotz (Document 2). The use of glyphs is an acknowledgement of a writing system, which is another accomplishment.
and the settlement set up will include a meeting house, a village commons, large open lots which is very large and it contains kitchens and places where animals are kept and agricultural highland. The highlands were beautiful fields divided into segments and planting and harvesting were done together as a family.
Geographically, the Maya were formed individually as independent city-states. They used a government structure that allowed their individual rulers a great deal of individual governance within their own municipalities, instead of a strong centralized governing structure ruled by an emperor or
Forgotten and lost, this city laid wrapped in vegetation, covered with forest it once commanded. Its temples as side trees, webbed with vines, and walls of ferns. Tropical rain lashing at the crumbling surfaces of stone architecture built by armies of workers. The darkness of the night guided by owls and the day by parrot shrieks. Statues of gods lay along the remaining stone hedges. It was not till 1839 the American lawyer John Lloyd Stephens and English artist Fredrick Caterwood, rediscovered the magnificence of the Tikal Mayan civilization. Development in the Mayan society began with hunters and gatherers leading to sedentary life and agriculture. Then early Maya civic then the highest point of the Tikal at middle Maya civilization.
The Three good examples or remarkable achievements by the ancient Maya were their Trade Network, Magnificent Cities, and their number system. The Maya’s Trade Network were paths, route, and places to follow when a trade needs to be done. This made more simpler to find resources and satisfy two people’s reads at the same time. They did everything an foot or boat and carries everything by hand. This was remarkable because it was a significance for the Mayas to have a trade system. It made it easier to find and get resources. Evidence of the Maya’s magnificent cities were the immense stone pyramids, stone palaces, ball courts, and other vital buildings. They had to build it with their own hands.
The Maya were an advanced society, rich and full extraordinary architecture with great complexity of patterns and variety of expressions, that flourished in Mesoamerica long before the arrival of the Spanish in the sixteenth century. They were skilled architects, building prodigious cities of primarily of limestone that remain a thousand years after their civilization fell into decline. Greatness and Grandeur was the signature of all Mayan cities, from the terminal pre-classic period and continued until the abandonment of all the city states by the beginning of the ninth century. The Maya built pyramids, temples, palaces, walls, residences and more. The limestone structures, faced with lime stucco, were the hallmark of ancient Maya architecture.
The Classic Era was the “golden age” of many Maya capital cities in 250 to 600 A.D. (Rubalcaba, 139/159). Long-distance trade thrived and warfare increased. Powerful capital cities, like Tikal and Calakmul, fought for complete control over the Maya world. None of the main cities achieved “lasting control” (Rubalcaba, 139/ 159). Later, during the Terminal Classic Period, the cities in the lowlands decli...
For the ancient Maya, the world was alive and full of sacred spaces such as caves and mountains, and “The architecture of ritual space replicated the features of sacred geography – the forest, the mountain, and the cave” (Schele and Freidel 72). Classical Maya kings invested a great deal of resources into pyramid construction, and the form of these buildings was carefully calculated. The shape of the pyramid emulated that of a mountain. The external layout, a series of landings and plazas of increasing size, enforced the social hierarchy by controlling the number of people in attendance and their proximity to the sacred spaces (Schele and Frei...
The ancient Maya once occupied a vast geographic area in Central America. Their civilization inhabited an area that encompasses Mexico's Yucatan peninsula and parts of the states of Chiapas and Tabasco, as well as Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. "From the third to the ninth century, Maya civilization produced awe-inspiring temples and pyramids, highly accurate calendars, mathematics and hieroglyphics, and a complex social and political order" ("Collapse..." 1). Urban centers were important to the Maya during the Classic period; they offered the Mayans a central place to practice religion.
The constructions of the temple-palace had large scale implications for the Mesopotamian landscape. It served as a symbolic entity for the city and towns that it was located in due to the tremendous height of these buildings that served as beacons that loomed over villages. These temples were perceived by many individuals who resided in these villages as homes for the deities. A wide cross section of villagers from various social backgrounds belonged to a particular temple in which they would worship. “The temple community comprised a cross section of the population: officials, priests, merchants, craftsmen, food-producers and slaves.” (174 Temple-Palace) Due to the great spiritual investment that was placed within these temples it prompted much time and labor to be invested into their construction. These temples also served as an outlet in which to take care of underprivileged citizens who were poor, orphaned or physically incapable of earning a living. Besides the fact that these temples provided support to the community it also supported the government sector as well. “The activities of the temple coordinated the construction of irrigation canals that often involved the cooperation of several communities.” (174 Temple-Palace) The temple-palace served a variety of integral roles to the villages and cities located within Mesopotamia. Temples intially did not immediately serve all these features within communities in Mesopotamia. Through examining specific periods on the Mesopotamian plain we will further understand how the temple-palaces evolved over the centuries within Mesopotamia and how they eventually became centralized within the community.
The Maya culture has a long history that started in about 1000 BC. The history of the Maya is divided up into four different time periods: The Middle Preclassic Period, Late Preclassic Period, Classic Period, and Postclassic Period. The Middle Preclassic Period was when the small areas started to become city-like in the way that they started to build larger temples. The Late Preclassic Period was when the cities began to expand with paved roads and massive pyramids. The Classic Period was the time the Maya civilization hit it’s peak. Populations were growing rapidly and the structure of politics was formed. The Postclassic Period was when warfare was on the rise and cities were being abandoned(Coe 2005). This paper will focus on the Classic Period due to the fact that that is the greatest time period in Maya history.