CDC,. (2015). CDC - Botulism, Consumer Information and Resources - NCZVED. Cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/consumers.html
Psychguide (2016). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Symptoms, Causes and Effects. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://psychguides.com
"Remicade: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects - Drugs.com." Web log post. Remicade: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects - Drugs.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.
Botulinum toxin has a complex chemical composition and is found in various surprising locations. The toxin is derived from Clostridium botulinum, and according to P.K. and Anjana Nigam, the authors of the Indian Journal of Dermatology, it is “an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod commonly found on plants, in soil, water and the intestinal tracts of animals.” H. Bradford Hawley M.D., the editor of Magill’s Medical Guide, states that these bacteria are vastly immune to high temperatures and can persevere through numerous methods used to eradicate it and to get rid of toxins for secure consumption of food and water. Since the bacteria can be found in such a diverse variety of commodities, which all can be ingested by humans, it is critical to find a way to disinfect our soil, meat, and produce against C. botulinum.
DeArmond, Stephen J., M.D., Ph.D., Safar, Jiri, M.D., Groth, Darlene, A.B., Prusiner, Stanley B., M.D. “Prions” Office of Health and Safety. 28 July 2006 < www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4s7d.htm>.
Yersinia pestis, the culprit behind the infamous Black Death, spread by rat fleas, has cast a shadow over human civilization, taken the lives of countless peasants and nobles alike like a violent brute who murders invariably. There are three major forms of infection stages, the bubonic plague, the septicemic plague, and the pneumonic plague (primary and secondary), all are lethal if not treated with proper antibiotics. Due to similar symptoms, clinical diagnosis, the distinction between a common cold and a lethal infection is made difficult. However, though a potent murderer, Yersinia pestis can be easily eliminated by antibiotic treatment; survivors of the disease may be scarred.
Clostridium botulinum is a kind of bacterium that is responsible for botulism. This is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. There are 7 types of toxins caused by C.botulinum, A-G, but only 4 of these toxin are known to cause a disease in humans they are A, B,E, and F. Only type A is universal throughout the world. Toxin G is encoded in the plasmid unlike the rest are encoded in the bacterial chromosome. What is special about type C. Botulinum is that it can only produce its toxin during sporulation. Clostridium botulinum will only become active when the environmental conditions are appropriate but other than that the endospores of Clostridium botulinum will stay “asleep” in contaminated foods. This type of bacterium is kept in low pH in the range of 4.8-7 because this organism that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen. Clostridium botulinum is very hard to grow in lab due to its living condition.
Anthrax is a bacterium that affects both humans and animals. Cows and other livestock are very prone to being infected by Anthrax. Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis: a gram- negative, facultative, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium (Thavaselvam et al. 2). Gram- negative implies that the bacterium does not retain the violet dye used in a Gram test. The Gram method is used to classify bacteria. Anaerobic refers to an organism that requires the presences of oxygen to function. Facultative refers a bacterium that can produce ATP through aerobic respiration, but could use fermentation if no oxygen is present. There are three forms of Anthrax poisoning. ...
Avian botulism is also known as limberneck, western duck sickness, duck disease, and alkali poisoning. “Botulism” was first termed over 100 years ago when man ate spoiled sausage. Research on avian botulism didn’t occur until the early 1900’s. Cases were documented as early as 1876 and 1893 when large numbers of waterfowl were found dead in Great Salt Lake marshes. Botulism is caused by the ingestion of a specific toxin that is produced by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum (Davis et al. 1971). Seven different strains of the toxin h...
Clostridium botulinum is a bacteria famous for causing the painful disease called botulism. Clostridium botulinum is bacillus shaped bacteria with a stain of gram positive who can survive without oxygen (anaerobic). It has the ability to form a protective spores in the outer layer in order to survive in harsh condition that normal bacteria isn’t able to do. They only form these spores when they are in low oxygen environments and the spore protects them from high or low temperature, radiation, and moisture. The main function of Clostridium botulinum is to create a toxin called botulinum toxin which is a neurotoxic protein that is able to cause muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin is also referred to as the “miracle poison”. This bacterium lives
Botulism is a rare but very serious paralytic illness that is caused by the botulinum toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum is a gram positive, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium that is naturally occurring in soil. Botulism dates back to the eighteenth century when the first food borne botulism was documented. During this time many people were doing home fermented sausages and this was thought to be the cause of botulism. This is how the toxin got its name since “Botulism” in Latin comes from “botulus” which means sausage. E. van Ermengen was the first to discover the microbe in 1897 after there was a food borne outbreak in Ellezelles, Belgium. To date there are six forms of botulism but only two forms were known until the twentieth century which were food borne and wound botulism. The first type of botulism is food borne which is a result of ingesting food that contains the pre-form toxin. Some foods that this typically occurs in are home canned vegetables, cured pork and ham and smoked or raw fish. Wound botulism is the result of C. botulinum spores growing in a contaminated wound with in vivo production. Most people that get wound botulism usually have deep and contained avascular areas and many people also had compound fractures. Wound botulism is on the rise in the U.S. because of the use of illicit drugs, “the majority were linked to injectable drug use, particularly with so-called ‘black tar heroin’ and others with nasal or sinus lesions due to chronic cocaine sniffing.” (CDC website) Another form of botulism is infant botulism. This is caused from the endogenous production of toxin germinating spores of C. botulinum in the intestines of the infants. Also feeding an infant...
Botox is a substance produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacteria. It blocks signals between the nerves and the muscles. This causes the muscle to stop contracting. In large amounts, this toxin can cause botulism, a potentially deadly form of food poisoning. However, in small amounts, it is very useful for various medical procedures.
Botulinum Toxin has been considered one of the most deadly biological substances known to man, yet millions of people voluntarily have it injected into their bodies for medical and cosmetic reasons. However, it hasn’t always been used in the medical industry. Botulinum Toxin is a naturally occurring poison created by the Clostridium botulinum bacteria that acts as a neurotoxin that blocks the signals sent from the brain causing a temporary muscle paralysis. Since Botulinum Toxin is so deadly and easy to make, it has caught the eyes of many people that wish to use it as a biological weapon.
Anthrax is a living organism in the genus Bacillus and its species name is anthracis. This specific bacterium is gram-positive which means that it has a thick, protective peptidoglycan coating. It is also rod-shaped and only a few micrometers in length. It is also one of the few bacteria to synthesize a protein capsule. Like other species in the genus Bacillus, it can form and release endospores, commonly known as spores. These spores are able to survive in extremely harsh conditions and can survive for years and even decades dormant in the soil. It is a very acute disease which means that it has rapid onset and a short course. Anthrax usually infects animals such as cattle, but occasionally can infect humans and in most cases without treatment is lethal. The deadly component of anthrax is its three-protein exotoxin which is secreted by virulent strains of the bacteria. This toxin was discovered in 1954 by Harry Smith, an anthropologist. Each of the three toxins individually are nontoxic. Only when combined are they lethal. The toxins are composed of cell-binding proteins known as a protective antigen and two enzyme components. One is called edema factor and one is called lethal factor.