This paper will consist of two reviews involving two different studies which assesses the children's ability to differentiate between fantasy and reality. One will determine how fantasy/reality distinction evolves with age, while the other investigates children's perception of storybook entities. Both focus on children's ability to categorize specified objects/people/events. Article One - Purpose, Hypothesis & Goal of Study It is believed that a basic component of human cognitive skills is the ability to differentiate between reality and fantasy. Traditionally, children were assumed to confuse the boundaries between them.
Imaginative play also known as fantasy, symbolic, pretend and role play. This paper will focus on the imagination process and the theory of mind, children understanding of others mind and mental representations. Pretend play will be an example of showing how children use their imagination through this type of play. Imagination this term raises a concern about if we are we born with this ability or we gain this ability through learning. It is argued that children learn to imagine and pretend, Rogers and Evans (2008) stated that we are not born with this ability only we have the potential for it.
However there are certain individuals who are geared more towards a greater affinity for the imaginative and the creative. This affinity or gearing towards getting lost in fantasy or towards a high level of imagination is what is known as fantasy orientation, it is often seen as a measure of how much an individual sees themselves as discerning between reality and fantasy. Children have often observed the confusing boundary between reality and perception (Piaget 1930). Dawkins (1995) held that children don’t only confuse fantasy and perception but the tangible and intangible, drams and reality since a very young age. This influence of children’s perc... ... middle of paper ... ...Research Digest.
Pretend play links cognitive events, one thing leads to another, hence ‘as if’ element (Fein 1987). Through play, children develop cognitive skills such as ability to stream thoughts and organize it into cause-and-effect sequence. Through divergent thinking, children develop multiple solutions to a single problem (Russ et all 1999). How does it work? Russ (2004) presented broad perspective in understanding the concept, while playing; children access, learn about, and experience emotional thought.
The Importance of Play in a Child’s Development This essay has a problem with formatting The majority of research done by Cognitive Psychologists dealing with human cognition has revealed it to be related to the human imagination. As evident by the fact that many psychologist view the process of thinking as the forming of mental representations and through the manipulation of these imaginative images we come to form thoughts. Thus, the imaginative skills a child learns during play are vital for that child’s successful develop into a well adapted and functional adult. Through the simply act of play a child’s ability to create mental icons is stimulated because a child’s activity during play is mainly imaginary. In this imaginary world children learn to deal with reality and for this reason a child’s play-time activities have a great bearing on their social, emotional, behavioral, and overall cognitive development.
Traditionally, children who were perceived to be highly imaginative and involved in pretend play were believed to be at risk for developing mental disorders like schizophrenia (Sperling, 1954). However, in recent years, these types of behaviours and thinking, for instance, having an imaginary companion, have become accepted as normal aspects of development in children (Taylor, 1999). Research has also indicated an individual difference in children’s engagement in fantasy, some are more reality focused and others more fantasy oriented. Fantasy orientation (FO) has been described as “an individual’s tendency to think and play in a fantastical realm” (Sharon & Woolley, 2004; Singer & Singer, 1990; Taylor, Cartwright & Carlson, 1993). It is suggested to be an individual difference that is stable throughout childhood and sometimes even progresses into adulthood, for instance highly fantasy oriented children tend to go into careers that entail creativity as adults such as those involving art, theatre and writing.
Under these two categories, there are different approaches to the method of playing. A child is either a "dramatist" or a "patterner." While children in the first group tend to take on roles in dramatic games or games of strategy in order to prepare for solving problems in life, children in the second are more like artists and bui... ... middle of paper ... ...with girl toys and boy toys. If parents want to make sure their children don't grow up to be too violent, they should avoid buying toys that trigger aggressive tendencies—it's difficult to play house with G. I. Joe's or wrestling dolls. Next to parents, toys are the most important things in a child's life.
In recent years there has been a shift in educational theory as more research is done about the positive effects play has on learning and development. One age group specifically that is helped by the use of play in their curriculum is primary school age children. This paper seeks to investigate the impact of fantasy and dramatic play on the development of identity in children ages 5-8. Erik “Erikson built his theory based on Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychosexual development and his own work with children and families. For Erikson, the social aspects that influence human development are more significant in shaping the identity of human personality” (Batra 2013).
Overall, toys create numerous opportunities for children to acquire, practice, and perfect new physical and mental skills. Playing with toys, children achieve milestones across their fine motor, gross motor, cognitive, and social-emotional domains. Different toys encourage children’s development in one or some of these areas and allow them to create new play agendas. For instance, puzzles develop children’s problem-solving ability as well as improve their fine motor skills while dress-up clothes nurture social-emotional and cognitive domains in children. Cognitive theories of gender-role acquisition stem from the idea that children socialize themselves into their gender roles through playing with toys.
The ability of understanding intentions of others is very important for social development of children (Feinfield, Lee, Flavell, Green, & Flavell, 1999). By means of understanding intentions children can make sense of that people and animates are different from objects (Feinfield, et al., 1999). According to Shantz (1983), this ability is the requisite to understand morality and responsibility. To understand plans and planning we also need to have the ability of understanding intentions (Feinfield, et al., 1999). In addition, Feinfield and colleagues stated that acquiring the ability of understanding intentions of others is also important for the cognitive development of the children such as theory of mind (ToM) that is “the understanding that others have beliefs, intentions and desires different from one’s own” (Kelly, 2011; p. 5).