The Fry sight-Word Inventory provides a 1000 word list in order of difficulty. During the assessment the student performed at a lower level. She said many of the words in the second and third grade set of 100 words incorrect. There were quite a number of hesitation and fixes, which was an indicator that these were not sight words for her. Decoding and analysis strategies were applied, which made her hesitate on words. I noticed as she read that she was confused with words that had “ro”, like “from” and would switch the letters around when she pronounced it. So indtead of “from” she would say “form”.
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It is more basic and more widespread than traditional phonics programs. A primary cause of decoding and spelling problems is with the challenge of judging sounds within words. This is called phonemic awareness. Weak phonemic awareness causes individuals to add, omit, substitute and reverse sounds and letters within words. Many children and adults experience the symptoms of weak phonemic awareness. This causes weakness
First, Catalina was asked to read a list of nonsense words aloud as quickly as possible during two 15 second trials (Decoding Fluency). She performed within the below average range. She also performed within the below average range when she was asked to read a list of words aloud as quickly as possible during two 15 second trials (Word Recognition Fluency). Catalina appears to demonstrate below average word reading and decoding skills.
Hunter was assessed using a running records assessment. This type of assessment is done with the student reading a book out loud to the instructor while the instructor follows along on a sheet to mark off any mistakes made. Hunter read confidently for the most part, only stumbling over a few words. He substituted the word “individual” for “instinctual” and, at first, said “have” instead of “live”, but this error he quickly corrected and was able to continue with the reading without a problem. The results of the running record assessment done on Hunter show that he is a very proficient reader. He only made a total of two mistakes and, of these two, one was self-corrected. Hunter’s accuracy rate is 99.5%,
Words their way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling instruction defines spelling inventories as “a list of words specially chosen to represent a variety of spelling features at increasing levels of difficulty” (WTW, 2012). Spelling inventories are designed to help assess a student’s stage and what they know about words (WTW, 2012). There are many different types of spelling inventories. Some of these inventories are The Primary Spelling Inventory, The Elementary Spelling Inventory, and The Upper Level Spelling Inventory. The Primary Spelling Inventory (PSI) consists of a list of 26 words that begin with simple words, and ends with inflectional ending words (WTW, 2012). For example, the Primary Spelling Inventory in Words their
The Wilson Language program has a precise structure to function as an intervention and is able to assist second through twelfth grade struggling readers to learn the construction of words by directly instructing students to decode and encode confidently. Natalie Hill, a Wilson Language Program assessor, said, ‘“There is a frequent change of pace, students will see as well as hear, multiple opportunities for students to be engaged and participate in activities, extensive controlled text methods and materials to “see” critical word components, like vowels, digraphs, etc., stop “guessing habit”, reading and spelling taught simultaneously, hands on, multisensory methods, no glossy pictures”’ (Hi...
The child’s lexical inventory is well developed. She has no troubles with finding words to express her thoughts. Not many words are repeated and that illustrates that she has a vast vocabulary to where she does not have to borrow words. She does not over or under extend the usage of her words.
Lila is a second grade student who participated in a Primary Spelling Inventory and the reflection of her results are as follows. After her spelling inventory was finalized I noted that the student spelled ten of the twenty-six words correctly giving her a power score of 10/26. Most of the words that she mastered was in the Late emergent and early of Letter Name Alphabetic stage. I also noted that Lila accomplished 36 features out of 56 total features during her spelling inventory. Based on the results of the Primary Spelling Inventory the orthographic features that Lila recognizes are the consonants, short vowel, blends, and is familiar with diagraphs. Although she mastered blends which falls in the late Letter Name-Alphabetic stage she failed to master diagraphs which is the middle stage.
As students read, the teacher makes notes focusing on the words they struggle with. The teacher indicates which words the student has substituted, repeated, mispronounced, or doesn’t know. These words are called miscues. After the miscues are marked they are classified. “Only the words that students mispronounce or substitute can be analyzed; repetitions and omissions aren’t calculated’ (Tompkins p.85). Once the miscues have been evaluated, the miscue analysis will indicate which cues the reader over relies on and which they need to further develop. Running Records also helps calculate the percentage of miscues to determine whether or not the book is at the students reading level. The goal is to give students appropriate books for their reading levels. After the running record and miscue analysis, the teacher can analyze this information to introduce personalized strategies and lessons to develop a more fluent
As I have worked with students and observed lessons being taught I find some of the students struggling with in understanding the language of learning because they do not understand the vocabulary being used. They are struggle with learning the information because they are trying to understand the unfamiliar terms used in the text. This therefore creates my problem of practice. Students have the ability to read grade level text but continue to demonstrate difficulty with comprehension of information because they are unfamiliar with the vocabulary of learning. This problem appears to occur more frequently in English learners (EL) and Students with Disabilities (SWDs).
Torgesen. J, Wagner.R, Rashotte. C, Burgess. S & Hecht. S . (1997). Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatic Naming Ability to the Growth of Word-Reading Skills in Second-to Fifth-Grade Children. Scientific Studies of Reading. 1 (2), 161-185.
...the development of instructional training are questionable. The ethical concerns of using the CAS for instructional and remedial purposes is the reliability of score interpretation and the effectiveness of categorization of cognitive deficiencies. For example, the simultaneous process emphasis on grouping related stimuli by using the cognitive task of integration of information. Naglieri and Goldstein (2009) argued the simultaneous process engages in the visual-spatial perspective by relying on visual memory that might display cognitive weakness in reading comprehension or verbal concepts. The complication of interpreting and profiling an individual with weaknesses in reading comprehension or cognitive deficiencies in word grouping based on the CAS subscale simultaneous involves disregarding phonological skills as a means of declined reading skills (Aaron, 2002).
It brings component parts together in order to make words. The learners, as it is shown by many studies, know the order of pieces and are able to construct words (Arnoff & Fudeman, 2005, Mc-Bride-Chang et al., 2005). Morphological awareness whether used analytically or synthetically has been reported by many studies to account for significant variance in different skills such as reading, writing, vocabulary acquisition and spelling development(e.g., Carlisle, 2000; Champion, 1997; Tyler & Nagy, 1990; Freyd & Baron, 1982; Mahony, 1994; Deacon, Wade-Woolley & Kirby, 2007; Mann, 1986; Leong, 2000; Deacon & Kirby, 2004; Deacon & Bryant, 2006). Among all these researches done, it seems that it is vocabulary learning and reading comprehension which has attracted too much attention to
Early in my youth I struggled with basic literature. When trying to read, words just wouldn’t flow or roll off my tongue. I had a speech impediment that only made matter worse. When sounding out words I would pronounce the letter ‘R’ with a ‘w” sound, or I would pronounce the letter ‘T’ with an ‘F’ sound. Instead of saying strawberry I would say “st-wah-bah-we.” Which caused poor writing skills as I was insufficient at sounding out words. I
Many children also exhibit visual perceptual problems during their early exposure of reading instruction, but most children soon learn the appropriate visual discrimination and the associated letter sound, etc. However, it is the children that continue to experience these problems that are diagnosed as having learning difficulties. The proper identification of a learning problem is only the first step in the redemption process. Before the data obtained from testing and from subjective observations can have...