Materialism is the “Doctrine that every object and event in the world is physical,” (Vaughn 198). Materialism has many theories of mind, two of which are logical behaviorism and the identity theory. Logical behaviorism is the “Idea that mental states are dispositions to behave in particular ways in certain circumstances,” (Vaughn 199). A flaw with behaviorism is it believes that mental states have nothing to do with our feelings, in reality mental states have a feel to them. Additionally, it is at odds with our commonsense intuition that mental states often cause behavior (Vaughn 199).
He came up with this idea by stating that the brain is made of matter, and the mind is not physically real. The mind is not a physical property in the world, but the brain is a physical object. From this, he determined that the brain and mind are two distinct things. I agree with this statement because the mind is not dependent on information from the body. I believe that Descartes would favor the side of mental phenomena not being able to be explained by reference to physical phenomena because he believes that the mind can live without a body, and he doubts the existence of the minds of other people.
Descartes’ thoughts and ideas proposed that the ideas, consciousness, and self- awareness that make up the mind, are in fact different from the brain. Other theories that were proposed at this time include materialism, and reductive physicalism. The ideas of dualism, that the mind and the brain (the body) are two separate entities are the most logical in addressing the issues of interaction, evolution and the idea of multiple minds. Dualism, the idea that the mind and the body are two different things, can be broken down into two distinct categories. A substance dualist will argue that the body is a physical object that has physical properties and that the mind is a mental substance that contains mental properties that are entirely separate from physical properties.
The premise that the mind is indivisible is not true because it is an assumption that the mind and body are two different things. "It is common knowledge that the brain is the central point of the body where all functions is controlled, mainly being sense perception and thought." (Lawhead, pg 283). The brain is as much a piece of physical matter the same way a rock is. Although much more complex than a rock, a brain and a rock have similar properties because they can be affected by the physical world and are bound by the laws of physics.
My perspective is that I am a substance and a property dualist because I view that the mind and body are made out of different properties, where the mind is not composed by the same substance as the body. On top of this, I also believe that even though the mind can be made up of physical properties, like the brain, however the mind has features that cannot be a way to function the brain. Hence, from the beliefs that I have
Rene Descartes once said, “There is a great difference between mind and body”. This statement comes from the idea that Descartes believed there were two substances that made up reality. One of the substances in reality Descartes called extension, or material being, meaning it takes up space. The other has to do with the mind, or thought, immaterial. This is called dualistic metaphysic’s.
This essay will define Cartesian dualism, explain and critically evaluate Gilbert Ryle’s response to Cartesian dualism in his article, “Descartes’ Myth” and support Ryle’s argument on Descartes’ substance dualism. Cartesian dualism is a type of mind-body dualism formulated by the infamous Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Descartes’ dualism is about entities: he states there are two distinct kinds of entities, bodies and minds (1). All objects that exist or can exist belong to one of these categories. The two forms are said to be mutually exclusive and commonly defined by fundamentally different characteristics, yet both are required to accurately define the world around us.
Physicalists believe in the philosophical position that everything, which exists, is no more extensive than its physical properties, and that the only existing substance is physical (Mastin 2008). Another term used to describe two-way interactive substance dualism is Cartesian dualism, which was defended by Descartes. Cartesian dualism is the idea that mind is not the same thing as matter, although they do causally affect each other. Descartes expands Cartesian dualism further in his Spatial Divisibility Argument, which states: P | 1. Bodies (material objects) are spatially divisible.
Arguments of Dualism Dualism is the theory that mind and matter are two distinct things. The main argument for dualism is that facts about the objective external world of particles and fields of force, as revealed by modern physical science, are not facts about how things appear from any particular point of view, whereas facts about subjective experience are precisely about how things are from the point of view of individual conscious subjects. They have to be described in the first person as well as in the third person. . There are two kinds of dualism.
I believe property dualism is a strong philosophical position on the mind-body issue, which can be defended through the knowledge argument against physicalism, also refuted through the problems of interaction. Dualism states that a human is both mental and physical. Property dualism says