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An Essay On The Parthenon

analytical Essay
1216 words
1216 words
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Athens was just one of many Greek city states around 400 B.C.E, however at the time it was also the strongest. Each city-state had an Acropolis, from the Greek Root Akron or Akros meaning “highest” or “topmost”, which would serve as a kind of fortified hill at time of war. Athens being the most powerful of the city-states, constructed a beautiful temple to the patron goddess Athena instead of the typical citadel you would find in other cities. The Parthenon is not only significant as the symbolic birth of democracy (a limited democracy, but a democracy nonetheless), but also the level of architectural refinement is unsurpassed. This moment is really viewed as the high point in Greek classical culture[4]. This building will go on to influence centuries of future architecture and be the yardstick for western architecture. It is hard to ignore the similarities of modern day Washington DC structures and this is no coincidence as a historic symbol of democracy. From the Jefferson memorial to the US Supreme Court the Parthenon’s artistic sway. The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, which was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury. For a time, it also served as the treasury of the Dalian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 5th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary [1]. We think that between 447 – 432 B.C.E. Athens had between 300,000 to 400,00 inhabitants. During the 5th century there was a series of reforms that allowed more people to be involved in the government. That being said, only about 50% of the inhabitant w... ... middle of paper ... ... William Richard, 1857-1931. "West pediment of the Parthenon." Journal Of Hellenic Studies 50, (January 1930): 4-19. Art Source, EBSCOhost (accessed March 27, 2014). 7. Spaeth, Barbette Stanley. 1991. "Athenians and Eleusinians in the west pediment of the Parthenon." Hesperia 60, 331-362. Art Source, EBSCOhost (accessed March 27, 2014). Two draped female figures seated on rectangular chests, perhaps Demeter and her daughter Persephone, beside them perhaps Hebe, East pediment, at British Museum. Reconstruction of the pediments of the Parthenon; top: west pediment; bottom: east pediment. Corner figures of the east pediment of the Parthenon, Phidias overseer, marble, over life size, c. 447-432 B.C. (British Museum, London) Dionysus, from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Phidias overseer, marble, over life-size, c.447-432 B.C. (British Museum, London)

In this essay, the author

  • Describes demeter (goddess of the law, marriage, seasons, and harvest), seated between her daughter and artemis.
  • Explains that dione seated beside hestia provides a lap for her daughter aphrodite. her name is the feminine variant of zeus, and she is sometimes seen as an equivalent of gaia, goddess of the earth
  • Analyzes how the pediment's composition was difficult because of the triangular nature of structure. the sculptor phidias shows an extreme understanding of not only the anatomical form, but also phycology
  • Explains that the west pediment of the parthenon is less disputed. it represents the contest of athena and poseidon, surrounded by their chariots and beyond these, were spectators.
  • Analyzes how the pediment is a first intersection of sculpture and architecture, and truly the high point in greek classical antiquity.
  • Explains boutsikas and hannah's aitia, astronomy and the timing of the arrhephor.
  • Analyzes olga palagia's 1995 essay, "first among equals: athena in the east pediment of the parthenon."
  • Cites allison, henry d., "clara may and elise pumpelly as two of "the three fates" from the east pediment of the parthenon.
  • Explains that miles, margaret m.1, mmmiles@ascsa.edu.gr., "the lapis primus and the older parthenon."
  • Explains the interpretation of architectural sculpture in greece and rome. studies in the history of art 49, 9-217.
  • Explains lethaby, william richard, "west pediment of the parthenon." journal of hellenic studies 50, (january 1930): 4-19.
  • Explains that athens was one of many greek city states around 400 b.c.e, but at the time it was also the strongest. the parthenon is significant as the symbolic birth of democracy.
  • Analyzes how two draped female figures seated on rectangular chests, perhaps demeter and her daughter persephone, beside them perhaps hebe, east pediment, at british museum.
  • Describes dionysus, from the east pediment of the parthenon, phidias overseer, marble, over life-size, c.447-432 b.c.
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