Alexander focuses on the War on Drugs to illustrate the drug war affects millions in today’s society. Although many will argue that the purpose of the War on Drugs is to protect society, Alexander utilizes facts and statistics to prove that this notion is false. First, the majority of those arrested are not charged with a serious offense. Alexander states, “In 2005, for example, four out of five drug arrests were for possession, and only one out of five was for sales”. This statistic illustrates that the drug war does help the nation get rid of big-time dealers. The only thing that the War on Drugs has achieved is the significant increase in the number of people incarcerated in the United States. From 1980 to 2000, the number of incarcerated individuals has increased from 300,000 to more than 2 million. Furthermore, Alexander points to the Fourth Amendment to illustrate how all
The War on Drugs has been a common phrase in the United States for many decades. What exactly does this mean and how does it shape U.S. foreign policy? The War on Drugs can be defined as the systematic and aggressive policy that is determined to undermine and stop the flow of illegal drugs into the United States. This policy is backed by several U.S. institutions including the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), U.S. Army, U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Customs. Also, included in this list are the numerous local law enforcement agencies across the country.
The main issue dealing with graffiti these days is how to prevent it. At the same time there are parties that argue we need graffiti and it is an important form of art. Most people trying to prevent graffiti are usually only against the art being produced illegally, that is on private property without permission of the owner.
Harmful drugs are an issue that creates controversy just by being mentioned, let alone acted upon by public policy. Despite this, policy actors must address drugs, through action or inaction, for the chance to make our society safer and healthier. Scientists and policy makers tend to agree that some drugs can be harmful to their users (Nordegren, 2002), but there are two broad camps of opinion on how best to protect users from these negative effects. This paper will discuss the ways that the policies of harm reduction and prohibition are formed, and identify the key actors in this policy space.
One of the most controversial art styles is known as Graffiti. Depending on the artist, it a work of art can include a minimum of one or two colors to an extraordinary amount of colors. Since this is a taboo form of art and more often completed in secrecy, untraditional use of spray paint is the primary source of paint for such artist; however, there are some cases in which markers, acrylic paint and stencils are used. Therefore, the paint strokes, as opposed to brush strokes, are free formed with no definition and sometimes will consist of “over spray”. Most often, the final piece consists of words, letters, and/or shapes that represent something to the artist. The artist’s canvas is untraditional as well, as it usually consists of train cars, buildings, subway cars, and other forms of public and private property. Graffiti, untraditional and controversial, does not meet the status quo of a typical art piece, as most all of the techniques used are unconventional and outside of the box; however, to some, it is still considered to be an
Urban graffiti has different meanings to people, whether it be good or bad. Graffiti is all over the world and some people dislike the way artists express their feelings on a wall. Graffiti should be accepted to a community when it has meaning to show and it’s a work of art that has class.
objective: Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is a common sexual problem among women. The sexual interest and desire inventory female know as SIDI-F has been widely confirmed and used to measure sexual desire in women. This was a working study on the psychometric properties of SIDI –F. This report describes the process and principles used in the translation and cultural adaptation of the SIDI-F on 40 women of reproductive age who were selected using convenience sampling method. The content authority of this inventory was proved by analyzing the feedback solicited from women of reproductive age, professions specialized in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was assessed through test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Few cultural differences were identified and considered during the process of translation and validation. In Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurement, the total score of SIDI-F was higher than Lawsche table indicating the importance of including the mentioned items in the tool. The SIDI-F seems to be valid and reliable and can be used to identify women with low sexual desire through research and sexual health programs provided by the health centers in Iran, and to design appropriate interventions to treat
Graffiti has always been, since the 1960s, a controversial yet unobtrusive topic. The major debate of whether or not graffiti is a form of art or if it is simply just a crime has been around ever since the first graffiti artists spread their graffiti all throughout urban areas. In the article, “Art and Crime: Conceptualising Graffiti in the City”, Cameron McAuliffe and Kurt Iveson discuss all the different perspectives and arguments people have involving the criminalization of graffiti, graffiti as art, and protecting graffiti’s authenticity. Many political figures mentioned in the article have tried to heavily criminalize the act of graffiti for various reasons. However, another question arises surrounding the
Graffiti should be considered art because it inspires changes. According to Graffiti Is All in the Eye of Beholder, “During World War II, American Gls left thousand of “Kilroy Was Here” messages on walls all over the world while decades later miles of the Berlin Wall were Blazed with message of peace,
Art is defined as the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination. When we see graffiti, most people’s reaction isn’t to praise the artist for creativity. Nobody ever seems to be inspired by street art or, as most call it, graffiti. We are all copies of one another in today’s society. Why do we feel obligated to judge one’s individuality? Graffiti, whether on walls, train cars, or buildings, is art. Graffiti has been used for years and years, from drawing on walls by the cavemen to the claiming of cities by the ancient Romans. It also has given cities a unique flare. Graffiti is a way for people to express themselves and show their imagination and creativity. Many argue art must be appealing to the eye of the beholder.
Graffiti is defined as the usually unauthorized drawing or writing on a public surface. While all of us are familiar with graffiti - just think about the spray-painted names on road-signs and walls - the predominant perception in society is that graffiti is a social evil. However, chairperson, today I will prove that graffiti can in fact be a force of good.
It is true that youth is responsible for much of the graffiti that is created but this can also not denied that there are as many graffiti writers from low income-families as middle-and upper-middle class families. Graffiti writers from all demographics are inspired by the opportunity for fame as well as recognition from their peers. They are not essentially motivated by the urge to rebel or boredom. Instead, they pursue to express their feelings, ideas or share an interest with general public. Furthermore, Boyd notices, “Graffiti becomes an affordable method of communication” (par.4) for artists to show their concerns, challenge the meaning of public space or to make a political statement. Aesthetic reasons also lead to graffiti creation. A black wall can look more attractive thought the elements of art including: colour, space, size, form, line, texture, space, value, interest, and style. Nowadays, many graffiti artists viewed their graffiti work as public art as it is a god-gift that is intended to improve the aesthetic surrounding their environment and
Graffiti is underrated in the art world due to its history of vandal. The act of performing graffiti took place of gang bangers claiming their territory by writing their street names on someone else’s property. Nonetheless, the art
Within the debate of whether graffiti and tagging contributes to the art of the scape of a city, or if it merely adds to the pollution, both perspectives have merit. Ultimately, there will be a prevalent set of groups that believe strongly that graffiti or tagging constitutes vandalism, even though graffiti can be regulated such that it actually becomes its own art form that contributes to a city’s identity. However, this debate as a whole, as Alain Milon asserts, is the result of media’s dilution of the issue, and lacks the attention to detail to “determin[e] esthetic classifications” of graffiti and tagging as art or as vandalism (Durand 90).
The origin and history of graffiti is not what one might expect. Believed to have been created by a Philadelphia high school student named Cornbread in 1967, it was a bold effort to catch the attention of a girl (De Melker). In this same time period, graffiti sprung up in New York as well. It was “one among many forms of social protest” during the 1960s, “an era marked by social unrest” (Prahlad). Graffiti artists, often known as “writers”, used graffiti as a form of protest, most clearly exemplified in the “‘bombing’ (painting) of subway trains in direct response to the bombing of Cambodia and Vietnam” (Prahlad). The graffiti movement reached its peak in the 1970s, also known as graffiti’s “golden age” (Ehrlich). “The modern graffiti movement, associated with the hip-hop culture of break dancing and rap music, started primarily among black and Latino teenagers in Philadelphia and New York in the late 1960s” (Derfner 30). The tagging phenomenon spread far and fast because these artists “usually wrote on subway cars, which had the advantage of moving their writing across the city” (Derfner 30). This dispersion increased the popularity of graffiti, and the movement spread from city to city, painting the nation.