Aluminum Essay

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Aluminum induces cross‑resistance of potato to Phytophthora Infestans

This article is about an experiment done to try to see if Aluminum can cause resistance in potatoes to a disease. Aluminum is commonly found in arid soils which accounts for 35% of all farmable on earth. The aluminum (specifically Al3+) targets the roots of the plants and causes stunted plant growth and abnormal root formation. THis causes stresses in the plant which could lead to cross resistance. This immunity has led to some plants to develop cross resistance to diseases. THis has happened before in the plant, an example is the fact that ozone induces resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco plants. This phenomenon is what is being tested for in potato plants. Potato plants will be subjected to infections from Phytophthora infestans. They sprayed the plant with bacterial cultures in order to infect the potato plant with the P. infestans. This was done by spraying the plant the P. infestans zoospores in a liquid suspension. After the plant was sprayed, it was moved to a room with 100% humidity in the dark for 12 hours at 18 degrees Celsius. After the twelve hour, they were moved to a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plants were inspected for infection at the 24,48,and 74 hour mark. THe amount of infection was determined by observing the discoloration on the leaves of the plant.
The level of Nitric Oxide in the plants were measured by taking samples of the root and the leaves. A dye was applied to the nitric oxide in order for it to be more clear when viewed.
Salicylic Acid(SA) was measured was by measuring 0.5g of plant tissue. The tissue was ground to a fine powder with liquid nitrogen. The acid was then extracted twice with Methan...

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...e involved in the plants carbohydrate metabolism. This response causes the plant’s cell walls to be rearranged and strengthened. THis would increase the plants resistance to infection and the uptake of harmful chemicals.
Several other chemicals which were involved in either signalling or as part of the defense response in plants were also seen to be at increased levels. What this means is that there is a proven correlation between aluminum exposure and a reduction in blight symptoms caused by P.infestans. It also was shown that the plants were also quicker to respond to other stresses. This means that certain strsses(in this case the aluminum) act as priming agents forthe defense response.
SA which has been shown to have an important role ina plant’s defense responses also had an increased amount of production, which helped increase the plants immune response.

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