Heart Disease in African American Women Heart disease is of utmost and imperative concern in the United States. It stands at the top of the list for causes of death in the U.S., and it can be absolutely devastating (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013). In part one of the health disparities paper, disparity in relation to heart disease was pointed out in those of low socioeconomic status and/or minorities. Part two of this paper has been streamlined towards a more specific minority: African Americans women. The reason for focusing on the African American women population is that there is a huge amount of disparity seen specifically in this group. As of 2009, African Americans as a whole had 30% more of a chance of dying from cardiovascular disease than Caucasians (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office of Minority Health [OMH], 2012). The rate of Cardiovascular Disease in African American women specifically is higher at 48.9% than the rate of CVD in African American men at 44.4%, showing even greater disparity in African American women (American Heart Association, 2013). The goal of this paper is to identify and appraise two different articles surrounding this topic. Both articles involve an intervention in which similar community prevention programs were implemented in hopes to reduce the risk of CVD in African American women. The first article is titled Love Your Heart: A Pilot Community-Based Intervention to Improve the Cardiovascular Health of African American Women. The authors of this study include: Fa ́tima Rodriguez, Lula Christopher, Caitlin E. Johnson, Yun Wang, and JoAnne M. Foody. The purpose of this study is to determine if implementing a heart healthy community prevention program, ... ... middle of paper ... ...ed prevention programs significantly decrease CVD risk factors in African American women. Both articles were appraised and evaluated, and outcomes ended up being positive in both. In both of the articles, all of the risk factors for CVD that were measured decreased from baseline to the end of the programs. This just shows how impactful these group programs are for this population. Not only was this intervention physically effective, it was also cost-effective as well, showing feasibility in all aspects. The large impact of these programs is extremely useful for nurses to understand, because nurses can look at these studies and implement programs like this elsewhere. A nurse has a duty to promote health and wellness, so it is important to know what works and what does not. As seen in this paper, group programs can be significantly effective in the prevention of CVD.
The public needs to address racial disparities in health which is achievable by changing policy addressing the major components of socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation) as well as the pathways by which these affect health. To modify these risk factors, one needs to look even further to consider the factors. Socioeconomic status is a key underlying factor. Several components need to be identified to offer more options for those working on policy making. Because the issue is so big, I believe that not a single policy can eliminate health disparities in the United States. One possible pathway can be education, like the campaign to decrease tobacco usage, which is still a big problem, but the health issue has decreased in severity. The other pathway can be by addressing the income, by giving low-income individuals the same quality of care as an individual who has a high
In this paper, I examine the ways in which living in poverty negatively impacts the health of African-Americans, based on the ethnographic family history and study of health care policy recounted by Laurie Kaye Abraham in Mama Might Be Better Off Dead: The Failure of Health Care in Urban America. I will focus first on the barriers that poverty creates to health care on a structural and personal level. I will then discuss how the unique stresses of poverty construct specific behavioral and emotional patterns which reinforce systemic problems to exacerbate poor health outcomes.
Mensah, G. A., Mokdad, A. H., Ford, E. S., Greenlund, K. J., & Croft, J. B. (2005, January 24). State of Disparities in Cardiovascular Health in the United States. Circulation. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/111/10/1233.short
...de, T. W., Kiefe, C. I., & Liu, K. (2007). Relationships between skin color, income, and blood pressure among african americans in the CARDIA study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(12), 2253-2259. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hch&AN=28073645&site=ehost-live
It is essential to the human body that the heart pump sufficient nutrient rich blood to the body’s cells, because the body won’t be able to function normally otherwise. When a heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood through to meet the body’s regular demand it is characterized as heart failure. Heart failure can usually be treated through conventional heart therapies and symptom management strategies, however conventional therapies don’t work for all patients with heart failure, this is what is depicted as advanced heart failure or end-stage heart failure. In other words “End stage” heart failure is when the condition becomes so severe that all conventional treatments no longer work, the only treatment that works for end stage heart failure is to have a heart transplantation-surgery to remove a person's diseased heart and replace it with a healthy heart from a deceased donor. However there are two large encompassing problems with this treatment. The first problem is that the patient is subject to shortages in donor organ availability and thus possible further decompensation and potential death while awaiting transplantation. According to the American Heart Association, there are over 500,000 new cases of end-stage heart failure in the United States every year. With only 2200 donor hearts available every year nearly 20-30% of the patients who die while they await a transplant. The second problem with this mode of treatment is that not all patients qualify for heart transplantation. Patients who have another disease in addition to end-stage heart failure do not qualify for heart transplantation. The discrepancy between the clinical need for donor hearts and the total number of hearts available, as well as the lack of treatment o...
The review of literature corresponds to the African Americans risk of getting hypertension. It showed that African American are at a higher risk for hypertension because many of them are unwilling to seek medical care and even when they do they do not take their medications as prescribed.
Therefore, considering these issues is an impediment when discussing the disparities in health. Some minorities are disadvantaged in the current healthcare while some are not. However, it is complicated to identify reasons for inequalities because health outcome is a result of numerous interactions with factors including the individual’s access to care, the quality of care provided, health behaviors such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, the presence or absence of complicating conditions, and personal attitudes toward health and medicine. Therefore, Examining existing racial and ethnic issues, developing potential solutions for current disparities, and preparing for future challenges as shifts in trends emerge are essential aspects of health care improvements” (Boslaugh,
The article on Black America Web entitled “The state of Black America, Part 4: Health as Wealth” (Lewis, 17 Jan. 05) is mainly addressing how African Americans should get check-ups, eat a healthier diet, exercise, among other things to maintain their health. The authors main point of writing an article about health is so that African Americans will be propelled to take preventative measures to prevent and treat disease that may be debilitating or lethal, to get professional help if they are not feeling mentally prepared, and to put aside mistrust of the medical profession.
The promotion of health has been primarily a White middle-class phenomenon (Gottlieb and Green, 1987). It is critical that minority groups are included in preventive care, particularly because racial/ethnic minority group members are likely to suffer from higher mortality and morbidity than are White Americans.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. (social inequality, 2009). Heart disease is a structural or functional abnormality of the heart, or the blood vessel supplying the heart, that impairs its functioning. (free dictionary). Heart disease is also known as cardiovascular disease. Since there are many conditions related with heart disease. The most common types are coronary artery disease or damage in the heart’s major blood vessels, stroke or damage to the brain from interruption of its blood supply, and high blood pressure or a condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls in too high. These conditions may lead to a heart attack. (mayo).
Large disparities exist between minorities and the rest of Americans in major areas of health. Even though the overall health of the nation is improving, minorities suffer from certain diseases up to five times more than the rest of the nation. President Clinton has committed the nation to eliminating the disparities in six areas of health by the Year 2010, and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) will be jumping in on this huge battle. The six areas are: Infant Mortality, Cancer Screening and Management, Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, HIV Infection and AIDS, and Child and Adult Immunizations.
According to the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, they have assessed the nation’s health system annually since 2003, reported that, in 2015 the health care delivery system has made progress to achieve the three aims of better care, smarter spending, and healthier people (City of White Plains Health Equity Report, 2017). However, they continue to promote health equality and reach the goal of New York State being the healthiest. But most importantly aiming to reduce or eliminate racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic health
African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared to White Americans causing a health disparity among these two racial groups. Not only do they have a higher rate but also suffer from an earlier onset, greater severity and more complications compared to White Americans. (HEALS) A health disparity is the difference in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, morbidity and other adverse health conditions that exist between specific groups. (from book) Health disparities are responsible for the imbalance of health conditions in the United States. According to PubMed Health, hypertension is when blood flows through the vessels with greater force than is normal. (PubMed Health) This leads to straining of the heart muscles, increasing the risk for hypertension related health issues. Hypertension doesn’t present its self with signs and symptoms that would alert someone to a health problem. Hypertension is a serious medical condition because it presents its self as asymptomatic, many people don’t know they have it until more serious health issues arise, such as
Becker, Gay, and Edwina Newsom. "Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction With Health Care Among Chronically Ill African Americans." American Journal of Public Health 93.5 (2003): 742-48. US National Library of Medicine. Web. 07 May 2014. .
The idea that the successful health and health care organizations of the future will be those that can simultaneously deliver excellent quality of care, at lower total costs, while improving the health of their population is taking hold. The main reason is because of health disparities. Addressing health disparities has been a challenge for decades. This paper will look at a few examples of how health disparities can affect individually, thus the overall health of a population.