Prof. Bishop Affirmative Action Affirmative Action in the United States is described as an employment positive practice to overcome historical discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of particular groups such as women, handicapped, veterans and minorities. The Affirmative action policy was put in to place by federal agencies enforcing those governmental institution receiving federal funds such as government contractors and educational institutions to develop such programs as The Equal Opportunities Act. During the Civil Rights act of 1964 antidiscrimination employment legislations were put in to place providing protection to both applicants and employees. Despite the Civil Right Act discrimination continued to persist it was on 1961 that President Kennedy mentioned for the first time “Affirmative Action.” The leader that developed and enforced the program was President Johnson “We seek… not just equality as a right and a theory, but equality as a fact and as a result.” President Johnson foundation was to achieve equal opportunity providing the necessary resources and increasing the opportunity in both employment and higher education. The employers with written Affirmative action programs must keep them as part of their Personnel policies and update them annually. The APP delineate the proactive steps utilize by the company to attract the unrepresented group. Through the years different Presidents have tried to made changes in the minority employment opportunities pressured by civil rights activist and the African community. During the 1870 to 1900 a considerable amount African Americans held government position including 20 members of the house and two senators. During the reconstruction of the gov... ... middle of paper ... ...p even though Adarand gave the lowest bid. According to Adarand the Government's use of race based presumptions in identifying such individuals, violates the equal protection component of Due Process Clause. The court agreed that all racial classifications whether imposed by local authorities, state and Federal government must pass strict scrutiny review. The decision of the case five jurors voted in favor of Adarand and four votes against. I agree with the decision we need to be fair among all, if Adarand Contractor bid was lower they should have been selected. Equal employment opportunity should be used with everyone, we all have the right to defend ourselves if our rights are been violated. In this case Adarand had the right to claim justice especially when the prime contractor sent and affidavit stating that they would have given the contract to Adarand.