Since the early time of man there has been crime. From petty theft to rape, murder and the like, it has always been a part of our society. Criminology seeks to prevent criminal behavior both on individual and social levels. Criminology consists of many theories that attempt to explain why criminal acts are committed and break them down into parts that can be understood. A major Criminological theory that exists today is that known as the Classical Theory. The Classical Theory is very
Nature of the Theory
The Classical school of criminology was brought about during the 18th century in a time of penal and criminological reformation. At this time and prior to, Criminal Justice was very arbitrary and not of that like today’s society. The two main theorists who brought about the Classical school were Italian Cesare Beccaria and Englishmen Jeremy Bentham. Both men had ideas that are similar to that of todays. Both men were proponents of hedonistic ideals and utilitarianism. Hedonism is basically the idea that pleasure is the ultimate pursuit in human happiness and utilitarianism is described as maximizing happiness and minimizing suffering as a society’s whole. A perfect example of Utilitarian views is described in the short story The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas by Ursula Leguin. They were ethical philosophers more so than anything else and backed the idea that humans had basic natural rights. They argued that people have free will to choose how the act whether it be good or bad. A major idea that Beccaria brought during this enlightenment was that government and laws are here to protect these “natural rights” and therefore are social pacts and that society gives a bit of their freedom to ensure their human rights ar...
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...s society many believe the problem lies on our punishment of why criminal acts are so high – not because Classical theory is inaccurate. It states that if punishment is swift and equal if not more sever will then deter people from committing criminal acts. But because they are not, criminals continue to rob, murder, and burglarize to this day. As seen through the comparison of Classical vs. Marxism and Positivism, Classical appears to explain crime more sufficiently. As stated before, I do believe there are cases in which one’s psychological or social environment can lead them to find themselves in a world of crime. But for the most part, we are all decision-making human beings described through the Classical theory of Criminology. There is a reason why this theory was created so long ago and is still very much considered today – there is truth behind what it argues.
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- Introduction There have been a number of theories within the area of criminology by people from different disciplines and each tries to explain different aspects of criminality and elements within the penal system. The classical school of criminology mainly refers to the eighteenth century work by two prominent philosophers, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. By looking at their ideas on free will, deterrence theories and the development of both into the modern world, it is possible to view the changes that have occurred which partly share the views of these theories.... [tags: Crime, Criminal law, Criminology]
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- The man credited with the birth of the classical school was Cesaer Beccaria (1738-1794), who emerged during the enlightenment period of the eighteenth century. Some argue that criminology as an independent discipline only emerged about 60 – 70 years ago (Garland 2002), and whilst not concerned with studying criminals per se in the same way that we most associate with criminology today, the classical school was hugely influential in the formation of Criminal Justice System as we know it today. Farner (cited in Taylor et al 1973) a nineteenth century commentator on Beccaria asserts : “Whatever improvement our penal laws have undergone in the last hundred years is due primarily to Beccaria, an... [tags: Criminology]
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