In “The Categorical Imperative,” Kant makes arguments concerning moral value of an action (maxim/ rule of conduct), and urges that morality is the inborn quality, which determines actions. His argument is that motivation should determine action, without worrying for the results. His views suggest that if the motivation is moral, the actions would be morally correct, and that the results would be acceptable, regardless of others’ views and acceptance for such actions. Kant’s arguments, in addition to being complex and incoherent, sound very subjective and impractical.
John Stuart Mill’s arguments link happiness with morality. The author argues that individuals’ actions, moral or otherwise, aim to make them happy. If an action makes one happy, that action is moral, and such an argument may not be entirely true.
In "The Nature of Virtue," Aristotle talks about two types of virtues, with one relating to teaching and learning and the other with habit. Morality is a learning process. According to his arguments, morally ethical behavior is not a natural quality and that an individual is not born moral or otherwise.
In the "The Ethics of Care," Virginia Held talks about caring and emotions. The main point of the author is caring, suggesting that caring is value and moral. Fulfilling the needs of the cared ones and be responsible to the latter is moral. The author also talks about different emotions, including sensitivity and empathy, for instances. These arguments are also limit in terms of general application.
The arguments of Kant, Mill, Aristotle, and Help are dissimilar for several reasons. Yet, there is some overlapping. Differences wise, Kant’s and Aristotle’s views are nearly polar apart, as the former’s argument ...
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...h deeper. Mill’s ethical argument limits to happiness, and that happiness determines moral actions. This may not be entirely true. Likewise, Held’s argument of caring is also limited, in terms of application. On the other hand, Kant’s ethical arguments, if such are very deep thoughts, are also complicated and even incoherent. The applications of such thoughts may not be practical in day-to-day life and in diverse social composition. Relative to earlier mentioned three different philosophies on ethics and moral behaviors, Aristotle’s arguments on ethics and virtues, being reasonable and applicable even in today’s context, is truly remarkable, even if it may not be totally relevant to all the situations and social context.
Aristotle. Classics . Edited by W. D. Ross. 350 AD. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.2.ii.html (accessed March 07, 2015).
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