Biological resources play an important role in the production of agricultural commodities as well as some of the most widely consumed products in the world such as beer. Beer is thought to be one of the oldest fermented beverages in the world (Arnold, 2005) and brewing industries which consist of several multinational national and smaller companies have become main resources for its availability globally (Chrzan, 2013).The preparation of the beverage consists of bioprocesses which involve the saccharification of starch most commonly derived from malted wheat and barley, and fermentation (Khattak et al., 2012) of the resulting sugar due to yeast. As of now, the production of this alcoholic beverage is one of the first known biological engineering tasks to utilize the process of fermentation (Dombusch, 2007). It now forms in traditions involving pub games, sports and festivals. Before it is commercialized for national and global consumption, an understanding of how fermentation and the science of beer brewing is needed to achieve a product which is produced in a hygienic and most cost effective way (Garcia et al., 1994).
The four primary ingredients in beer production require grain, hops (used as a stability agent in beer), yeast and water (Hoalst & Patterson, 2014). The strength of beer is also usually thought to contain around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume.
Beer brewing consists of seven steps: Mashing, Lautering, Boiling, Fermenting, Conditioning, Filtering, and Filling (Sint- Sebastian Belgian Microbrewery, 2008). Firstly, when grain is allowed to germinate and dried in a kiln, it produces malt. This germination process produces alpha-amylase and beta-amylase enzymes. These enzymes converts starc...
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... tun. After this boiling process, filters are used to separate the hops so that the product is clarified. Proteins within the wort also coagulate and the pH of the wort falls due to this boiling process. Steam fired kettles which use steam jackets in the kettle to boil the wort is used by most breweries today. It is by under high pressure, that the steam is delivered by an external boiler. Wort is then set into a whirlpool after boiling. This causes coagulated protein and vegetable matter from hops to amalgamate in the centre of the whirlpool tank.
Internal overhangs in a whirlpool must not be present to ensure that the rotation of the liquid is not slowed down. Smaller breweries often use the brew kettle as a whirlpool. Plate heat exchangers are used to cool down wort coming out of boiling process (Sint- Sebastian Belgian Microbrewery, 2008).
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