PART A: Martha Minow’s Five Unstated Assumptions About The Dilemma of Difference
In Making All the Difference: Inclusion and Exclusion in American Law, Martha Minow outlines five unstated assumptions about the dilemma of difference and special privilege. The dilemma of difference is based on the idea that the identity of recognizing differences threatens the idea that we are all the same. In other words, the idea that everyone is the same leads to formal equality. The dilemma of difference is also about the “unstated point of reference,” which is when there is a failure to recognize difference as a problem. For example, Mari Matsuda’s experience of not being allowed into the store illustrates how it is problematic to recognize difference as a problem.
Minow discusses how difference among people exposes them to discrimination. Minow’s article examines the “sources of difference” in order to define differences and structural inequality. According to Minow, the first unstated assumption is that “difference is intrinsic, not comparison.” Minow provides that difference is part of nature and that there can be compared even if it is not noticeable all the time. For example, everyone is the same despite all the stereotypes and assumptions. Sherene Razack provides that the concept of race tends to “other” those who do not belong to the dominant white group. Similar to Minow, Razack used the term “other” to challenge everyone to question why people are categorized to belong “the other” group. Differences are intrinsic because people view others from their own set of assumptions.
In “Race, Racism and Racialization: Contested Concepts,” Vic Satzewich discuss the asymmetrical issue surrounding race as there is a hierarchy that exists in ...
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... quail’s call to illustrate how human rights is not always “attractive.” In short, human rights can at times be brutish, nasty and messy. This is especially true when human rights law deals with the issue of racism. Barb Thomas acknowledges that there are underlying issues that need to be addressed.
Sherene Razack argument is premised on learning about cultural difference and how at times it is inadequate and misinterpreted. Razack also talks about appropriation, intersectionality, cultural relevance and essentialism in regard to human rights. She is very critical about the issue of racism and uses the term intersectionality to describe how people belong can be identified with more than one social identity based on race, gender or disability. Consequently, she provides that “we are not in any position of criticizing another culture because we belong to a culture.”
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