In “Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution” William E. Friedman discusses the reconstruction on the embryonic patterns for diversification in flowering plants, mainly angiosperms. An angiosperm is characterized to be the most recent plant that has flowers and produce seeds in an enclosed carpel. It has plant and floral properties that have evolved from the three main lineages of flowering plants- monocotyledons, eumagnoliids, and eudicotyledons. The Amborella Trichopoda is an interesting specie in plants because it has developed a new embryo that provides evidence to the ancestry of gymnosperms and it has a Polygonum type, which is a seven-celled eight genetically nuclei.
In past studies, many analyses showed that the traits of angiosperm lineages were inaccurate. Monocotyledons, eumagnoliids, and eudicotyledons were actually considered to be the prwhistoric lineages of flowering plants. However, in the 20th century, there have been studies that show angiosperms having a triploid endosperm. For angiosperms, developmental patterns in female gametophytes have a vital characteristic, which is the endosperm because it is able to undergo double fertilization to produce an embryo. Hence, the Polygynum type produced a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm. This is due to the antipodals, which are three sterile cells at the chalazal pole. The synergids, which are located at the microylar pole and are three celled with two sterile cells. The synergids are able to retrieve the pollen tube and able to undergo double fertilization from the female gametophytes in the two sperm cells. The central cell is binucleate, which allows them to be triploids. From these characteristics, Ambor...
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...ty for Angiosperms provided evidence that the female gametophyte of Amborella Trichopoda consists of a 7- celled 8 nuclei similar to the Polygonum type. Earlier studies have indicated that the three main lineages of flowering plants were- Monocotyledons, eumagnoliids, and eudicotyledons. Yet, this was not the case due to similarities of the mitotic stage between Polygonum type and Amborella Trichopoda providing 8 celled 9 nuclei during maturity. This data demonstrated Amborella Trichopoda being classified as a sister to all other angiosperms and also being the ancient lineage of flowering plants.
William E. Friedman. 2006. Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution. Nature. London: May 18, 2006. Vol.
441, Iss. 7091; p. 337.
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