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Essay on Symptoms and Treatment Helicobacter pylori Infection

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For over a century now it has been known that there are bacteria present in the human stomach. However, these bacteria were considered to be contaminants from digested food, rather than real GI colonizers. About three decades ago, Robin Warren and Barry Marshall announced the successful culture and isolation of a spiral bacterial species, firstly named Campylobacter pyloridis because of structural similarities to other Campylobacter species. Later, because of its functional and enzymatic properties, it was named Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori hosts the mucus layer which coats the inside of the human stomach. It is a gram-negative bacterium, with length in the range from 2 to 4 μm and width from 0.5 to 1 μm. Even though it is normally spiral-shaped, the bacterium can also appear as a rod. Coccid shapes usually appear after certain time in vitro culture or antibiotic treatment. This pathogen has 2 to 6 unipolar, sheathed flagella which are approximately 3 μm in length and often carry a distinctive bulb at the end. The flagella contribute to the mobility of the cells and allow quick movement in the mucus layer covering the gastric epithelial cells. Humans are almost exclusive hosts for H. pylori, but it can also be found in some nonhuman primates. On rare occasions it has also been isolated from pets, meaning that domestication of pets may be a risk factor for H. pylori infection. (Kusters & van Vilet, 2006)
H. pylori is microaerophilic. It grows good in a 5–10% O2 concentration and 5–10% CO2 concentration in the atmosphere on blood-containing media, like Oxoid agar with 5% sheep, horse, or human blood. H. pylori’s optimum growth conditions are on plates at 37°C for 3–7 days, but longer incubation period (up to 12 days) may be nee...


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...f this course does not clear the infection, a second combination therapy with different antibiotics will most often work. Since three medicines are used – two antibiotics and one medicine against stomach acids – combination therapy is also called triple therapy. (Knott 2011)
5. A research studying vitamin C in humans and mice has shown that the amounts of 5g a day can get rid of H. pylori in up to 30% of patients. Epidemiological researches have shown that also diets rich in vegetables and fruits and thus high in vitamin C and other nutrients that are antioxidants, are linked with lower percentage of infection and if infected, less outcome.
Fiber is the key for the appropriate functioning of the digestive tract and an inverse connection exists between fiber levels, particularly soluble ones from fruits, vegetables, oats, legumes and sees and duodenal ulceration.





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