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Mercury: A Potential Contaminant - Introduction: A fifteen year old boy abruptly became ill; he experienced fatigue, headaches, tingling limbs, weakness, and weight loss. The only information provided stated that he had been using an acne cream prescribed by a dermatologist as well as an over the counter “beauty cream” to deal with skin irritation. The doctors could not find the reason for the boy’s illness, but interestingly a heavy metal was found in the boy’s urine. What could possibly be the heavy metal and could it have caused such a severe reaction....   [tags: Health, Chemistry]
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2118 words
(6.1 pages)
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Industrial Production of PTFE - PTFE or Telfron is a common commercial organic fluoropolymer which is obtained by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. It was first synthesized by Roy Plunkett accidentally in New Jersey in 1938 (Plunkett, R. J., 1987). It gradually becomes as an important industrial material for its extraordinary properties of high corrosion resistance, good electrical insulation, good heat insulation and low frictional coefficient. Due to those properties it is widely used as seals in chemical processing sector, and tubing or piping for laboratory uses....   [tags: Chemistry Science]
:: 21 Works Cited
1984 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Discovery of Penicillin - ... For a while bacterial infections were the main cause of death in the human race. People died from syphilis, gonorrhea, diphtheria, scarlet fever, and even childbirth because they didn’t have a good enough antibiotic. You could also die from surgical infections, so you could’ve already been sick and very ill and then you go into surgery and get an infection from it, which is then not even curable. Your situation could go from bad to worse very quickly. The period where they wanted to do test trials, experiments, and clinicals, in Britain they didn’t have enough resources....   [tags: history of chemistry] 889 words
(2.5 pages)
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History of Nail Polish - Anywhere you go in the world today, you see women with nails that are painted in so many different colors and designs. Nail polish dates back to the 1920’s when the first modern day nail varnish was invented by the Charles Revson Company. This particular invention has impacted the cosmetics market for women, because every women who wants to be stylish and express themselves in a fun way, buys nail polish. Nail varnishes have many components to make it both safe and user friendly. Some of the chemical components consist of: film forming agents and resins such as nitrocellulose, tosylamide and formaldehyde....   [tags: Cosmetics, Chemistry] 668 words
(1.9 pages)
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Water Gas Shift Reaction - Purpose: Syngas through water gas-shift reactions relate multiple reasoning to the foundation and production of several oil and gas related industries. The following analysis of syngas will begin with the explanation of water gas-shift reaction along with related Steam Reform Reactor, and Fischer-Tropsch processes. In the major bulk of the analysis, the complete process of syngas involvement with water gas-shift reactions will be discussed. In addition, catalyst involvement will be introduced in processing techniques....   [tags: chemistry, syngas] 1717 words
(4.9 pages)
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Scientific Controversies - Facts and reasons cannot in most circumstances settle scientific controversies. The main issue is a matter of interpretation. One person can interpret data and observations differently from another person. This is where the problem lies. Pride and scientific interpretation can keep a controversy going even when facts and reasons may seem to prove one side false. Also, if there is more than model and those models each have some kind of positive evidence, then they each have a point to argue from....   [tags: Chemistry] 859 words
(2.5 pages)
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Potentiometeric Titrations - Title: Potentiometric Titration Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to construct a titration curve by titrating Formic acid using a standardized sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and a pH meter through potentiometric titration. After the data for the rest of the class is collected, compare and contrast the equivalence points to see how the concentrations of the various acids affected the acids weakness and strength. Methods: Obtain 0.020 M of Formic Acid (HCCOOH). Calibrate the pH meter using the instructions for calibrating the pH meter in the appendix....   [tags: Chemistry] 1297 words
(3.7 pages)
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Redox Reactions - To predict a number of redox reactions from a table of relative reactivities of some common oxidants and reductants, and then to check these predictions by experiment. APPARATUS The following materials are required in order to complete this experiment:<p>,,X Reaction palette or set of semi-micro test tubes and stand<p>,,X Clean plastic tray<p>,,X Latex gloves<p>,,X Goggles <p>,,X Set of small dropper bottles containing each of the following: <em>f</em>æ Freshly prepared FeSO4 <em>f</em>æ 0.1M FeCl3 solution <em>f</em>æ 1M sulfuric acid, H2SO4 <em>f</em>æ 0.1M H2O2 solution <em>f</em>æ 0.1M KSCN solution <em>f</em>æ 0.1M K3Fe(CN)6 <em>f</em>æ Freshly...   [tags: Chemistry] 557 words
(1.6 pages)
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Density Lab - Objective: The objective of this lab was to calculate the densities of various objects using different techniques. Procedure: <ol> <li value="1"> The mass of the 100-ml. Graduated cylinder was measured without water or rubber stopper. <li value="2"> The mass of the 100-ml. Graduated cylinder was measured without water but with the rubber stopper. <li value="3"> The mass of the metal cylinder was measured. <li value="4"> The 100-ml. Graduated cylinder, with rubber stopper was filled with an amount of water....   [tags: Chemistry] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Bioluminescent Life Forms - ... Many of these animals use the light they produce the same way we humans use candles or flashlights. Animals however produce light very differently from the way a light bulb would. A light bulb creates light through incandescence. A filament inside the bulb gets hot and emits light. Glowing animals typically creates light through luminescence. In luminescent animals, chemical compounds mix together to produce a glow. Several earthworm species create a luminescent secretion that does not have an obvious purpose....   [tags: applications of chemistry] 976 words
(2.8 pages)
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Graham's Law - In chemistry and in physics, the movement of particles becomes very important. One way in which particles move is through effusion. The formula for the rate of effusion of gas molecules was developed by a chemist by the name of Thomas Graham in the 19th century. December 21, 1805�September 16, 1869. Thomas Graham was born in December of 1805 in Glasgow, Scotland. His father was a workman who desired that his son enter the Church of Scotland. However, Graham became a student at the University of Glasgow in 1819, where he became interested in the field of chemistry....   [tags: physics chemistry graham grahams law] 619 words
(1.8 pages)
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Nitinol - I. Introduction The problem given is to select the material for and design the next generation of coronary stents, which are used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. The final material must be commercially available, have published properties, be a solid cylinder, have a diameter of 8mm, a length of 15 mm, be biocompatible, and meet several engineering constraints. To solve the given problem, the researcher first looked at various journals and scholarly publications to see what types of materials are generally used in coronary stents....   [tags: Chemistry] 935 words
(2.7 pages)
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Catalysts - Catalysts speed up the rate of reaction and remain chemically unchanged or being used up in the process, and are widely used in industry. Enzymes are biological catalysts made up of proteins, and can be used a lot in industry since they operate best close to room temperature and pressure which can be maintained in industrial processes. Catalysts will speed up rate of reaction and can also be used to change properties of a product to increase it’s usefulness – it can turn light, bendy poly(ethene) into a more dense and less flexible material with a higher melting point....   [tags: Chemistry ]
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1168 words
(3.3 pages)
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Polyhydroxybutyrate - Plastic industry has become of vital importance for the comfort and quality of our lives, due to numerous qualities as strength, lightness, low cost and durability. Their downside is the negative impact over the environment, due to the accumulating of millions of tons per year. Therefore, the development of biodegradable plastics seems a key issue for further development. PHAs are hydroxyalkanoate polyesters that are used as energy storage for bacteria. Polyhydroxybutyrate(PHB) is a biodegradable polymer, with similar properties to polypropylene, which gives it great potential as alternative source of plastics....   [tags: Chemistry]
:: 13 Works Cited
1572 words
(4.5 pages)
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The Importance of Water as a Medium for Life - Water is a very important liquid found on the Earth's surface and makes up 60 to 90 % of the fresh mass of all living things and is very important for cells. It is also an important habitat for animals such as fish and other aquatic organisms. It consists of 2 hydrogen atoms, covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. When discussing what makes water such an important medium for life, I must consider properties, such as its dipolar charge, its ability as a solvent, its thermal properties, its density, its high surface tension and its cohesion....   [tags: Chemistry of Water] 659 words
(1.9 pages)
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Use of Robots to Clean Ponds and Lakes - Background Water is one of the world’s most important natural resources. It is an essential part of life because it not only sustains life but it harbors many forms of it as well. Therefore, it would be in one’s best interest to make sure this source does not become contaminated and make it useless and harmful. There are several different organisms and chemicals that can be produced that will harm other, and bigger, organisms. A major component of the chemicals and organisms that emerge from contaminated waters is nitrogen....   [tags: Water Chemistry]
:: 4 Works Cited
2833 words
(8.1 pages)
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Precipitation Test of Cations and Anions - Qualitative Analysis Purpose: In this lab, we would tests the ions of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and enable each to be identified separately. And by using these observations, we could also identify an unknown. We also would tests the ions of SO42-, CO32-, Cl-, and I-, that also enable each to be identified separately, and to be use to identify the unknown. Safety: Chemicals include toxic. Remember to wash hands after the experiment. Procedure Summary; Part I - Qualitative Analysis of Group 2 Elements We first mix 0.02M K2CrO4 with each Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2 together....   [tags: Chemistry Lab] 1436 words
(4.1 pages)
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Detecting Signs Of Chemical Change - Detecting Signs of Chemical Change Abstract: The objective of this experiment will be to combine various substances, liquids and metals, and to observe their behavior when they are combined. The types of reactions observed shall determine the nature of these reactions: physical or chemical. Introduction: An elements¡¦ reaction to certain substances may be predicted by its placement on the Periodic Table of Elements. Across a period, an element on the left will react with more vigor than one on the right, of the same period....   [tags: Chemistry Experiment] 1298 words
(3.7 pages)
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Preparation of Mosquito Repellent Fabrics - Preparation of Mosquito Repellent Fabrics Abstract: A mosquito repellent substrate includes a fabric which is impregnated with a repellent carrier composition. The carrier composition includes a mosquito repellent (e.g. permethrin, prallethrin etc.), binder, emulsifier and cross linker. The carrier composition is applied as a finish or printed onto the fabric. 1. Introduction 1.1 About Mosquitoes Mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever, have plagued civilization for thousands of years....   [tags: Chemistry Lab] 1161 words
(3.3 pages)
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Complexometric Titration - Complexometric titration is defined as a form of volumetric analysis in which the formation of a coloured complex is used to indicate the endpoint of the titration (1). Complexometric titrations rely on the formation of complexes between metal ions and compounds capable of donating electrons to form a stable, soluble complex (2). The complex is formed as a result of metal ions being titrated with a complexing agent or ligand. The principle of complexometric titrations is based on a simple ion being transformed into a complete ion and using a metal indicator to determine the endpoint (3), and the displacement of water from the solvation sphere of the metal ions by ligands (5)....   [tags: Pharmaceutical Chemistry ]
:: 5 Works Cited
3069 words
(8.8 pages)
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Chemestry Assessed Practical - Chemestry Assessed Practical Variables: The variables for this practical are: 1. The metal that it used- magnesium, copper or iron. 2. The amount of metal that is used- any amount as long as it is divisible by 0.5 grams. 3. The concentration of the solution of the solution- molarity 0.1M or 0.5M. I am going to change the amount of metal. Fair Test: To make this a fair test I must keep everything constant except the variable (the amount of metal). But even the variable must be changed at a consistent rate (going up in 0.5g)....   [tags: Papers] 526 words
(1.5 pages)
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The Element Iron - Iron comes from the Latin word ferrum. From ferrum its symbol became Fe. The atomic number of iron is 26, and its atomic weight is 55.845. Iron is a magnetic, bendable, shiny white metallic element. Pure iron has a hardness that ranges from 4 to 5. It is soft and ductile. Iron can be easily magnetized at ordinary temperatures and at 790°C the magnetic property disappears. Pure iron melts at about 1535°C, boils at 2750°C, and has a specific gravity of 7.86. Chemically, iron is an active metal. When exposed to humid air, iron forms a reddish-brown, flaky, decay known as rust....   [tags: Chemistry Essay] 351 words
(1 pages)
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Caffeine - Caffeine Caffeine is the most-widely consumed psychoactive substance by human beings throughout the world (Reid, 2005). This report will detail its natural origins, chemical structure (as well as those of similar substances), and the methods and dosages in which it is rendered into its usable form. Additionally, this report will detail caffeine's various biological pathways within the human body, including access to the brain and various neurotransmitter pathways. Caffeine is a chemical that occurs naturally in over 100 plant species throughout the world (Steffen, 2000)....   [tags: Science Essays Scientific Chemistry] 2039 words
(5.8 pages)
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The link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel with the amount of energy it releases - The link between the number of carbon atoms in a fuel with the amount of energy it releases Alcohols generally belong to compounds whose molecules are based on chains of carbon atoms. They usually contain one oxygen atom, which is joined to a carbon atom by a singular bond. This makes them different to other compounds. The oxygen atom is joined to the hydrogen atom as well as the carbon atom, which makes the oxygen a part of a hydroxyl group. These atoms are generally a part of a hydrocarbon chain....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2717 words
(7.8 pages)
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Investigation to Find the Relative Energy Release of Five Alcohols: Ethanol, Methanol, Propanol, Butanol and Propanol - Investigation to Find the Relative Energy Release of Five Alcohols: Ethanol, Methanol, Propanol, Butanol and Propanol Aim: In this experiment I will investigate to see which alcohol releases the most energy during combustion; Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol or Pentanol. Hypothesis: I think that the alcohols with the longest carbon chains will release the most energy. This is because when a bond is broken energy is released. This means that the alcohols with longer chains and therefore more bonds will release more energy....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2238 words
(6.4 pages)
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To investigate the temperature change in a displacement reaction between Copper Sulphate Solution and Zinc Powder - To investigate the temperature change in a displacement reaction between Copper Sulphate Solution and Zinc Powder Preliminary Experiment: Correlating Magnesium Powder and Copper Sulphate Solution ========================================================= I will mix 4cm of Magnesium ribbon and 50cm³ of Copper Sulphate Solution into a polystyrene cup until I find a reaction. =============================================================== Prediction ========== The magnesium will displace the copper and the temperature will rise....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1074 words
(3.1 pages)
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How does the Relative Molecular Mass change in heat combustion of an alcohol? - How does the Relative Molecular Mass change in heat combustion of an alcohol. Planning Introduction ============ As alcohol burns in air it gives out energy as heat and light. I am going to investigate how the energy output of an alcohol in combustion changes, with increased relative molecular mass, or RMM. RMM is the sum of the atomic masses of every atom in the molecule. Using the alcohols: Methanol, Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol and Pentan-1-ol, I will plan, and complete an experiment that tests the prediction below....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2964 words
(8.5 pages)
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An Investigation Into The Effect Of An Electric Current On Copper Sulphate Solution - An Investigation Into The Effect Of An Electric Current On Copper Sulphate Solution Aim In this experiment my aim is to enforce and develop ideas about the investigation into the effect of an electrical current through copper sulphate solution. Safety - Electricity is dangerous - Aware of coppers sharp edges - Long hair tied back - Use of acids in experiment Diagram 1) Weigh the cathode 2) Set up apparatus below 3) After a minute, remove the copper and shake off the excess copper sulphate solution....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 767 words
(2.2 pages)
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An investigation to determine which of four alcohols is the most exothermic - An investigation to determine which of four alcohols is the most exothermic Prediction I predict that the most heat given out per mole burned would be by Propanol because the size of the alcohol molecules might increase with heat. Alcohols produce heat when they burn in oxygen or air. The amount of heat produced per mole of alcohol will be proportional to the amount of air present. Full combustion should generate two products only: carbon dioxide and water vapour. Hypothesis Within a molecule there are bond energies that are holding the atoms together....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 954 words
(2.7 pages)
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Investigating the Dfference in Enthalpy of Combustion for a Number of Alcohols - Investigate the difference in enthalpy of combustion for a number of alcohols Enthalpy I am going to investigate the difference in enthalpy of combustion for a number of alcohols, the enthalpy of combustion being the 'enthalpy change when one mole of any substance is completely burnt in oxygen under the stated conditions'. I will be attempting to find how the number of carbon atoms the alcohol contains effects the enthalpy change that occurs during the combustion of the alcohol. Method I plan to measure the enthalpy change by burning the alcohol, using a spirit burner, I will then use the heat produced during the combustion of the alcohol to heat 100ml of water that will be situated in a...   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3890 words
(11.1 pages)
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Investigate whether firelighter, wood, ethanol, paraffin or wax contains the most energy - Investigate whether firelighter, wood, ethanol, paraffin or wax contains the most energy Energy In Different Fuels Aim: I am going to investigate which fuels contain the most energy between; firelighter, wood, ethanol, paraffin and wax. Prediction: I think that the fuel that contains the most energy is the one that produces the highest rise in temperature of the water. I know this because… Heat + fuel + oxygen => CO2 + H20 + energy. The energy realised is heat and light energy, which is dependent on the chemical potential energy in the fuel....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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Toxic Effects of Aluminum and Their Probable Association with Dialysis Encephalopathy - Toxic Effects of Aluminum and Their Probable Association with Dialysis Encephalopathy Reports on the neurotoxic properties of Aluminum (Al++), as well as those of many other heavy metals, date as far back as the end of the nineteenth century. In 1965, Al was found to induce the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in animal brains. These NFT’s were similar to those found in brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Vast research thus, was targeted at defining the possible etiologic role of Al in AD....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Essays]
:: 9 Works Cited
1673 words
(4.8 pages)
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Physiological Changes and Effects Reported by Users and/or Survivors of LSD - Physiological Changes and Effects Reported by Users and/or Survivors of LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide is one of the most potent hallucinogens on the drug circuit and had been in this top position for many years. First discovered by Albert Hoffman when it was absorbed through his fingers while he was conducting a routine synthesis. Today LSD is a widely popular recreational drug in which its users are looking for the non addictive euphoria that comes with ingesting this substance. LSD is derived from the fungus found on rye and is presented to users in a variety of methods....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Essays Science]
:: 7 Works Cited
1657 words
(4.7 pages)
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Investigation of the Heat Energy Produced by Combustion of Various Alcohols - Investigation of the heat energy produced by combustion of various Alcohols Aim: ---- To investigate how different alcohols produce different amounts of heat energy through combustion. I will be heating water using different alcohols as fuels and measuring the amount of fuel consumed. From working out how much fuel has been used I can work out how much bond energy has released from the molecules of the alcohol. From those results I will be able to say which alcohol is the best for combustion and which one is the worst to combust....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2704 words
(7.7 pages)
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Experiment to Compare the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols - Experiment to Compare the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols Introduction: This plan will try to outline how the experiment of comparing changes of combustion of different alcohols will be conducted and what results are expected. Background When chemical reactions take place they are often accompanied by energy changes. Chemical reactions most frequently occur in open vessels. That is, they take place at constant pressure. Enthalpy refers to energy at constant pressure (volume may vary)....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
:: 2 Works Cited
2548 words
(7.3 pages)
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The higher the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate the faster the - The higher the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate the faster the reaction of the two liquids. Information. According to the kinetic theory all matter is made up of tiny, invisible particles that move all the time. When the temperature is increased around or on these particles, the faster they move. Heavier particles move more slowly than light ones at a given temperature. This theory defines the differences between solids liquids and gasses; in a gas the particles move freely and at random in all the space available, in solids particles only vibrate around fixed positions and in liquids the particles have some freedom and can move around each other....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1336 words
(3.8 pages)
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An investigation into the heat of combustion of five alcohols - Alcohols : An investigation into the heat of combustion of five alcohols Planning ======== Introduction ------------ I am trying to determine the heat of combustion for the first five alcohols, which are; ethanol, propanol, butanol, pentanol and hexanol. I am trying to determine whether the amount of Carbon atoms on the molecule affects the heat energy given out by the molecule when burned. I believe that as the size of the molecule increases and the chain of carbons grows longer, then the heat energy given out will increase....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2531 words
(7.2 pages)
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The change in enthalpy for the combustion of magnesium metal - The change in enthalpy for the combustion of magnesium metal Abstract ======== Hess’s law of heat summation states that the value of DH for a reaction is the same whether it occurs directly or as a series of steps. This principle was used to determine the change in enthalpy for a highly exothermic reaction, the combustion of magnesium metal. Enthalpy changes for the reactions of Mg in HCl (aq) and MgO (s) in HCl (aq) were determined experimentally, then added to that for the combustion of hydrogen gas to arrive at a value of –587 kJ/mol Mg....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
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1121 words
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Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid - An investigation into how changing one variable influences the rate of reaction between marble chips and dilute Hydrochloric acid Planning Section When dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with marble chips the following reactions occurs: CaCO3 + 2HCL = H2O + CO2 This is the reaction we will be investigating. We will be investigating what changes the rate of reaction. A list of variables that could affect the rate of reaction - Temperature - Concentration - Surface Area - Temperature: This variable changes the rate of reaction, when the temperature is increased the rate of reaction is quicker, because the particles have more energy to move around and collide with each other....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2403 words
(6.9 pages)
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Feedback Effects of Soil Carbon Cycling in Northern Ecosystems - Feedback Effects of Soil Carbon Cycling in Northern Ecosystems Global warming will be greatest in mid-continental North America and Eurasia, where temperatures are predicted to increase 4 - 12_C during the winter and 2 - 6_ C in summer (Kasischke et. al, 1995). This warming will shift the boreal forest, bog, and tundra biomes that dominate these areas northward as much as 500 km in the first hundred years of warming (Toward...1988, qtd. in Varallyay, 1990). Alaskan studies indicate that these changes are already influencing ecosystem function and carbon balance in northern ecosystems (Grulke et al....   [tags: Science Chemistry Essays]
:: 15 Works Cited
2579 words
(7.4 pages)
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Comparing The Enthalpy Change Of Combustion Of Different Alcohols - Comparing The Enthalpy Change Of Combustion Of Different Alcohols The aim of my experiment is to investigate the enthalpy of combustion of a range of alcohols. The standard enthalpy of combustion is the enthalpy change that occurs when 1 mole of a fuel is burned completely in oxygen under standard conditions – 1 atmosphere pressure and 298K. All combustion reactions are exothermic which is why I am expecting all the values for the enthalpy change of combustion to always be negative. Prediction ========== I predict that the greater the number of carbon atoms there are in the alcohol molecule, the greater the enthalpy change of combustion it will have....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
:: 3 Works Cited
3136 words
(9 pages)
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Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols - Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols What are alcohols. ================== Alcohol is the common family name for the hydrocarbon group alkanols. At least one of the hydrogen groups is replaced by an OH group. They are all organic compounds. The general formulas for the alcohols are: CnH(2n+1)OH Where n represents a number. The first and simplest member of the alkanols family is methanol. Its molecular formula is CH3OH. You can now see that each member of the alcohol family has a different number of carbons in its structure....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3452 words
(9.9 pages)
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The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils - The Story of Organic Matter Decay in Soils To most people, humus is a garlic-y chickpea spread for sandwiches or pita bread. However, to soil scientists, its something entirely different. Soil humus is a mixture of dark, colloidal organic compounds relatively resistant to decomposition. These compounds result from the decay of organic litter and accumulate in the O and A horizons of soils. Soil humus helps glue mineral particals into aggregates, giving structure to the soil and affecting soil stability....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers] 1211 words
(3.5 pages)
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Neurotheology: Which came first, God or the brain? - Neurotheology: Which came first, God or the brain. ìIt feels like a loss of boundaryÖItís as if the film of your life broke and you were seeing the light that allowed the film to be projectedÖî: Michael Baime describes the sensations he experiences during Zen meditation. Michael is a subject of the brain imaging study performed by scientists Newburg and DíAquili to track neural activity during Zen meditation. Newburg and DíAquili wanted to find out which brain sections were most active during the meditative states achieved by Michael and his fellow subjects....   [tags: Chemistry Neurotheology Papers]
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1744 words
(5 pages)
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Part of the Neurons affected by SSRI Inhibitor/Prozac - Part of the Neurons affected by SSRI Inhibitor/Prozac Pharmacological Effects SSRI selectively blocked the reuptake of 5HT through their inhibiting effects on the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) dependant carrier in presynaptic neurons. A standard TCA such as amitriptyline, which has about an equal tendency to block neuronal reuptake of 5HT and norepinephrine, Fluoxetine in 200 times more selective in blocking the reuptake of 5HT than of norepinephrine. Florentine is approximately 4 times as potent as 5-HT reuptake inhibitor in vito as is amitriptyline and paroxetine is approximately 80 times as potent an inhibitor as amitriplyline....   [tags: Biology Chemistry Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
2028 words
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Family Member Perspective and Damage to Temporal Lobe - Family Member Perspective and Damage to Temporal Lobe The temporal lobe has several functions. Among these functions are auditory, memory, and emotional tone to sensory input. In these ways temporal lobes allow us to not only hear, but to comprehend what we hear and put it in to the proper context to effectively remember. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2005) Because of the functions of the temporal lobe, someone who suffers from damage to this area due to either a lesion or tumor can also suffer from a major change in personality....   [tags: Medical Chemistry Chemical Papers]
:: 9 Works Cited
1963 words
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Primary Behavior Changes and Cide Effects of LSD - Primary Behavior Changes and Cide Effects of LSD LSD (D lysergic acid diethylamide) is a very potent synthetic hallucinogen. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, found in ergot, which is a fungus that grows on grains. In its original form, LSD is a white or clear, odorless, water soluble crystal that can be crushed into a powder and dissolved. LSD goes by the street name “acid” or “blotter” and is sold in tablets, capsules and sometimes liquid form. Oftentimes LSD is added to absorbent paper and sold in individual squares or “doses” which are then dissolved on the tongue....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers]
:: 8 Works Cited
2129 words
(6.1 pages)
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Evaluation of the Fractal Dimension of a Crystal - Evaluation of the Fractal Dimension of a Crystal Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of voltage and molarity changes on the fractal dimension of a Cu crystal formed by the re-dox reaction between Cu and CuSO4. Using the introductory information obtained from research, the fractal geometry of the Cu crystals was determined for each set of parameters. Through the analysis of data, it was determined that the fractal dimension is directly related to the voltage....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers]
:: 6 Works Cited
1956 words
(5.6 pages)
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Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Copper Carbonate - Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Copper Carbonate Aim: Copper has two oxides, Cu2O, and CuO. Copper carbonate, CuCO3 decomposes on heating to form one of these oxides and an equation can be written for each possible reaction Equation 1: 2CuCO3 (s) Cu2O (s) + 2CO2 (g) + O2 (g) Equation 2: CuCO3 (s) CuO (s) + CO2 (g) The aim of this experiment is to prove which equation is correct. This can be done by volumetric analysis i.e. calculating the volume of gas produced. This is then compared to the calculated volume of gas produced in each equation and the equation with the nearest volume of gas is correct....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]
:: 5 Works Cited
1434 words
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Determination of the Enthalpy Change of a Reaction - Determination of the Enthalpy Change of a Reaction Determine the enthalpy change of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate by an indirect method based on Hess' law. Determination of the Enthalpy Change of a Reaction Determine the enthalpy change of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate by an indirect method based on Hess' law. Using the proposed method of obtaining results, these values were gathered: Reaction 1: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) GRAPH ¼ in both cases represents the mean of the data....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1680 words
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The Rate of Reaction Of Metals with Acids - The Rate of Reaction Of Metals with Acids Introduction In this investigation I will be looking at the rate of reaction between a metal, which will be magnesium ribbon, and an acid. The acids will either be hydrochloric, ethanoic, sulphuric or phosphoric acid. I will be finding out if the activation energy changes depending on whether a strong or weak acid is used. I will also be investigating whether or not there is a change in the order of reaction if a dibasic acid is used instead of a monobasic acid....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2974 words
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Amino Acid Supplements for Body-building and Exercise - Amino Acid Supplements for Body-building and Exercise Contents: This paper is divided into two sections. The first section contains information about research of amino acid supplements found on the Internet. The second section contains published research studies addressing questions of effectiveness and safety of the supplements. Section 1: Internet-based Research Involving Amino Acids General Overview of Section 1 The sports of bodybuilding and fitness are undergoing changes as supplemental products enhance the performance of athletes....   [tags: Science Chemistry Health Essays]
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Behaviors Caused by Hypothalamic and Thalamic Lesions - Behaviors Caused by Hypothalamic and Thalamic Lesions In the field of neuropsychology, the area in the brain that includes the hypothalamus, the thalamus, and the subthalamus is referred to as the subcortex diencephalon (Kalat 2004). In the following section, lesions to these specific areas will be discussed. The results of the lesions will be addressed from the perspective of a neuropsychologist. Neuropsychological assessment refers to the objective evaluation of the cognitive, linguistic, perceptual, and psychomotor performances of a person with the aim of relating the status of his/her performances to the structural and functional condition of his/her brain (Steinhauer...   [tags: Neurological Chemistry Chemical Papers]
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Implications For Brain - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Implications For Brain Throughout the course of this semester we have examined numerous issues which have all had different implications for the brain = behavior argument. Some who have been skeptical of the validity of this idea have been swayed by observations that processes and behaviors they originally thought to have a cloudy neurobiological basis in fact have a sound biological and physiological underpinning. One such phenomenon which can help elucidate the ongoing brain = behavior debate is Post-Traumatic Stress disorder, or PTSD....   [tags: Chemistry Psychology Papers]
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Ecstasy, the Brain, and the Media - Ecstasy, the Brain, and the Media Ecstasy has been glorified by countless Brit-pop drug anthems, condemned by staunch anti-drug foundations and even caused a controversial media debate when the post-mortem picture of eighteen year old Lorna Spinks was splashed across every newspaper in the United Kingdom, her Ecstasy-related death rendered in full gruesome color. The long-term effects and temporary consequences of Ecstasy have been a subject of heated debate in the past ten years as the pill has seen a surge in popularity....   [tags: Drugs Drug Chemistry Essays]
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Energy Produced by Burning Five Alcohols - How much energy is produced when burning five alcohols · Methanol · Ethanol, · Propanol, · Butanol · Pentanol. The aim is to find out how much energy is produced when burning these alcohols. The reaction that is involved in burning alcohols is exothermic because heat is given out. Form this reason the reactant energy is higher than that of the product. The energy is given out when forming the bonds between the new water and carbon dioxide molecules. The amount of energy produced by such exothermic reactions can be calculated by using the formula : Mass of the substance x rise in temp x SHC( specific heat capacity)....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1649 words
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Caffeine Effects In The Brain - Caffeine Effects In The Brain Caffeine acts in a multitude of ways in the brain. The most recent studies explore the cooperative effects of adenosine and dopamine, as well as the increase in calcium in the interstitial fluid and possible accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophospate. The most popular discussions of earlier studies of caffeine demonstrate its antagonistic effects on adenosine receptors. While it has been reported that adenosine receptors are located throughout the brain, the various subtypes can be found in very specific areas....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Essays]
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Mercury: A toxic poison - Mercury: A toxic poison No other metal better illustrates the diversity of effects caused by different chemical species than does mercury. On the basis of chemical speciation, there are three forms of mercury: elemental, inorganic, and organic compounds. The major source of mercury is the natural degassing of the earth's crust, including land areas, rivers, and the ocean, and this source is estimated to produce on the order of 2700 to 6000 tons per year. The total man made release into the atmosphere is about 2000 to 3000 tons, and it is difficult to assess what quantities of mercury come from human activities and what quantities from natural resources....   [tags: Chemistry Metal Papers]
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Neuropsychology & Spouse/Family Members - I intend to explore the effects of a parietal brain injury from the perspective of a neuropsychologist; ranging from types of tests that are employed when trying to determine the extent of the damage, to gaining an understanding of how this damage will affect the rest of the brain and/or the body. I will also explore the effects of a brain injury from the perspective of the family members, and their experiences with the changes that occur during the rehabilitation process. According to The Neuropsychology Center, “neuropsychological assessment is a systematic clinical diagnostic procedure used to determine the extent of any possible behavioral deficits following diagnosed...   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Neuropsychological Papers]
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Polymorphisms of Crystalline Solids - Polymorphisms of Crystalline Solids Polymorphism is the phenomenon where a compound can precipitate to form numerous crystal structures. Due to space and time limitations, we have decided to confine the scope of this paper to only include polymorphisms of crystalline solids and not include polymorphisms associated with DNA and genetic related topics. It is important in many areas of technology, that people are aware of the presence of polymorphisms and the properties of the different polymorphisms....   [tags: Chemistry Engineering Science Essays]
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Proper use of Pesticides - Proper use of Pesticides Storage of chemicals Store pesticides in a locked and posted facility where children or other untrained people cannot get to them. Read the labels on pesticide containers for correct storage procedures. Select a storage site high enough that damage from flooding will be unlikely and downwind and downhill from sensitive areas such as houses, play areas and ponds. Pesticide storage facilities should also be located away from homes and livestock facilities to avoid or minimize contamination in case of fire.Pesticide and expended pesticide containers are best stored in a separate building, room, or enclosure, depending on the size of the pesticide inventory....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Pesticide Essays] 2459 words
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Rate of Reaction Coursework - Investigate if changing the concentration of an acid will change the rate of the reaction when marble is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Apparatus Marble Chips Conical Flask Hydrochloric Acid Gas Syringe Delivery Tube Stop Watch Fair Test To make the experiment a fair test I will use the same amount of acid for each concentration. I will do this by using a capillary tube because they are very accurate. I will use 3g of marble in each concentration of acid. I will clean everything out before I start the next experiment with a different experiment....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1252 words
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New Physical Properties - New Physical Properties Discussions about physicalism, reduction, special sciences, the layered image of reality, multiple realizability, emergence, downward causation, etc., typically make the ontological presupposition that there is no room for new properties in the physical world. The domain of physical properties would thus have been established once and for all. It is my purpose in this paper to explore the alternative hypothesis that there can be, and that in fact there are, new physical properties....   [tags: Science Chemistry Physics Papers]
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Dehydroepiandro Sterone (DHEA) - DHEA WHAT IS DHEA. DHEA is the most common hormone in our bodies and is named "the mother of all hormones" as a result of it being the precursor to over 50 other hormones in the body. DHEA is an abbreviation for dehydroepiandro sterone, which is pronounced dee-hi-dro-epp-ee-an- dro sterown. DHEA is produced in the adrenal glands and is converted on command to specific hormones the body needs to maintain bodily functions, such as the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. DHEA is also responsible for producing hormones that control fat and mineral metabolism as well as stress....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Papers Research]
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Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis - Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis In the United States, an estimated 2.3 million couples are considered infertile [Wekesser, 1996]. This creates a large need for infertility specialists and clinics specializing in fertility treatments. With the quickly advancing field of rep roductive services and the quest for creating better, healthier babies, a new service called Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is being offered in conjunction with In vitro fertilization. PGD is a procedure that combines In vitro fertilization and genetic screening....   [tags: Fertility Chemistry Chemical Paper]
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Depression and Antidepressants - Depression and Antidepressants Specifically the serotonergic hypothesis and the action of Prozac The cause of Clinical depression has long been a mystery to physicians and researchers. Many different theories have been proposed, but no conclusive evidence has been put forth. However, most of what we know about depression stems from the results of certain drugs which have been successful in treating the clinically depressed. These anti--depressants have led to the assumption that depression is most likely due to a chemical imbalance (of neurotransmitters) which somehow leads to the symptoms of depression....   [tags: Chemistry Depression Papers]
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Rates of Reaction - The affect of varying hydrochloric acid concentration of on the rate of reaction with sodium thiosulphate Background knowledge:The equation of this reaction is Na2S2O2+ 2HCl ± 2NaCl + H2O + SO2+ S A reaction is a process by which a substance or substances change to produce a new substance or substances. Rate of reaction is the speed at which products are formed and reactants disappear during a chemical reaction. The rate will be measured by following the production of sulphur. The rate of reaction is affected by temperature, surface area, concentration and catalysts....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 1171 words
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Rates of Reaction - An Experiment to show the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Calcium Carbonate Introduction Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H20(l) In this experiment we will be investigating the variables that can affect the speed of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. During this experiment carbon dioxide is produced. This is what we are going to use to record the speed of reaction, for the faster the reaction the faster carbon dioxide is produced....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3987 words
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Rates of Reaction - How concentration affects the rate of reaction Aim:To investigate how different concentrations of hydrochloric aci9d affect the rate of reaction on marble chip, (calcium carbonate). Background information: Different reactions take place at different rate. The measurement of the change can take place in a single unit of time; it can take seconds, minutes, hours and even days. It can be either fast or slow. Reaction rates are explained by the collision theory. The collision theory is explained by the rate of reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2994 words
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Rates of Reaction - How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Temperature and Rate of Reaction Question How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride +water + sulphur dioxide + sulphur Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(aq) + S(s) Prediction I predict that the higher the temperature, the more quickly reaction will occur. This is because with heat, the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid have more energy....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2101 words
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Rates of Reaction - Investigating the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid I am going to measure the rate of the reaction when hydrochloric acid is added to sodium thiosulphate. I am going to investigate what effect the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate has on the reaction rate. When sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid are mixed, a yellow precipitate of sulphur is produced. The solution becomes increasingly difficult to see through as more and more sulphur is formed. This is how I plan to measure the rate of the reaction....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 2650 words
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Rates of Reaction - Rates of Reaction What is a rate of reaction. The amount of change of a product or reactant in a given time. What affects the rate. a) Concentration of solution (more likely to collide as more in same vol.) b) Temperature (increases speed of molecules, more exceed EA) c) Surface area (same as concentration) d) Pressure of gasses (same as conc.) e) Catalyst (guide particles to correct orientation + lowers EA) f) Others e.g. light(light = increase in speed of particles) How are rates altered....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation] 3452 words
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Radiation - Types of radiation Stable/unstable isotopes: Unstable if the atomic number is greater than 83 or if the ratio of neutrons to protons places it outside the zone of stability (1:1.3 – 1:1.5). Alpha: Ionizing radiation emitted by some substances undergoing radioactive decay. It is in fact a helium nucleus with a +2 charge. It is formed when the ratio of neutrons to protons in the nucleus is too low which causes the element to be in an unstable energy state. Alpha radiation is unable to penetrate paper as shown in the diagram....   [tags: Science, Chemistry]
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Creatine Monohydrate - Creatine Monohydrate Creatine monohydrate is a body building supplement. Many athletes and trainers use it to enhance athletic performance. College athletics are an advocate for creatine when it comes to exercising and strength conditioning, But what is creatine. Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite found in red muscle tissue. It is a powerful ergogenic aid that plays an important role in energizing muscle. Creatine increases the body's ability to do work. It is high powered and generates the muscles ultimate energy source - ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- ATP produces the contractions of a muscle's proteins....   [tags: Supplements Chemistry Creatine Essays] 1300 words
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BaBar Experiment - BaBar Experiment Abstract I investigated the L = 1 mesons D*2(2460)0 and D1(2420)0 using data gathered by the BaBar detector at Pep-II. The decay process of these particles is interesting because it could serve to confirm or deny certain predictions made by HQET models. Thus far, the data gathered rougly conforms with measurements made by the CLEO and ARGUS collaborations. The data is still preliminary, however, and as such this paper should be considered merely a summary of the work done thus far....   [tags: Chemistry Science Scientific Essays]
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Radioactive Isotopes - Radioactive Isotopes I never thought nuclear energy would play a role in my life, but that was until two years ago when my family was hit with horrifying news. A close friend of ours was diagnosed with breast cancer. Because of a new technology called radiation therapy or radiotherapy, my mother’s best friend is alive today. Radiotherapy is produced by a form of nuclear energy called radioactive isotopes. The class EGEE 101 has educated me about the subject of nuclear energy, but I wanted to take it a step further and discover how nuclear energy plays a role in medicine....   [tags: Chemistry Atoms Energy Essays]
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Geothermal Energy - Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is a superior source of energy because it is constantly being produced. Radioactive decay of nuclei with long half lives that were imbedded in the Earth’s interior during its genesis accounts for seventy percent of the globe’s internal energy. The remainder of this energy is derived from either the residual heat left over form the Earth’s formation, gravitational forces, or meteorite impacts. Geothermal energy is available anywhere on the planet. On average the Earth emits one sixteenth of a watt per meter squared, however this number can dramatically increase in regions near volcanoes, hot springs and fumaroles....   [tags: Science Energy Chemistry Essays]
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Molybdenum - Molybdenum is a transition metal. It is represented by the symbol Mo. It is a pure metal that is is silverish white in color and very hard, and has one of the highest melting points of all pure elements at 4753 °F. Its boiling point is 8382 °F. Its density is 10280 kg/m3 and its hardness is 5.5. It has a molar volume of 9.38 ×10-6 m3/mol. Molybdenum has an atomic weight of 95.94 amu. Its atomic number is 42. The atomic radius is 145 pm and the covalent radius is 145 pm also. Its electron configuration is [Kr]4d^5 5s^1....   [tags: Chemistry Essay] 309 words
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Scopolamine - Scopolamine Scopolamine is in a family of anticholinergic hallucinogens along with hyocyamine, and atropine. Although they can be synthesized in a laboratory from various precursors, they are found naturally occurring in four genuses of the Solanaceae (potato) family: Atropa, Datura, Mandragora, and Hyoscyamus. People around the world have utilized the effects of Scopolamine in manifold ways. Using extracts from Atropa Belladonna which means beautiful woman, ancient Egyptian and Roman women are supposed to have put the juice on their eyes leading to larger pupils which was considered more beautiful....   [tags: Chemistry Chemical Drug Papers]
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Lithium - Lithium Though the drug lithium is used for a number of disorders ranging from acute depression to eating and personality disorders (Paykel, 1992), it's primary use is for bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression. Patients with bipolar disorder "between two poles: depression and its opposite, mania" (Kalat,2004), often with periods of normal behavior in between (Jamison,1993). In addition, the patient is also prone to "mixed episodes" in which symptoms of both mania and depression are present....   [tags: Chemistry Medical Chemical Papers]
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