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Four Fundamental Concepts of Knowing in Nursing Essay

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There are different types of knowledge and different ways of knowing. Four fundamental concepts of knowing in nursing highlighted by Caper (1978) are empirical, personal, ethical and aesthetic. He divided knowledge into two forms which are tacit and explicit. Tacit is insights and based on experience and not easily visible and expressible, difficult to share and communicate with others which is highly personal. Empirical sources of knowledge depend upon an individual’s manner of observing and responding to events in the outside world (Higgs et al, 2004). Whereas explicit is formal and based on rationality and easily can be expressed, shared, communicate which are highly universal principles. Rationalism comes from within the individual and depends upon theoretical reasoning rather than on data from the real world (Higgs et al, 2004).

Practice setting is a vital arena for construction of new knowledge by healthcare practitioners (Higgs et al, 2004). On reflection during this dissertation, explicit or empirical knowledge has played a large part in my decision to initiate and implement the new practice as it has involved analysis of current practice and reviewing current literature. It has enables me to recognised the philosophy of diabetic care that been practiced and the needs of appropriate development to improve diabetes care through more effective and up-dated philosophy of care. Besides that, I have identifies the conflict that exist in diabetes education practice not only at my practice but throughout the state in my country.

In designing a structured education program it-self has give a new knowledge in practice setting. I have learned that implementing change is not an easy job but it is fundamental for improving pati...


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...tionally, I intent to assess knowledge of newly diagnosed patient at the time of diagnosis and six month after attended the education plan. In doing this, it will enable me to assess how much knowledge has been gained from the education programmed and indirectly will shows how effective is the program. Speight & Bradely (2001) in their research, identified knowledge deficits were apparent in patients where they used ADKnowl (Audit of Diabetes Knowledge version 1998) (appendix) tool to assess patient knowledge. They further stressed, assessment of knowledge provides a useful starting point for individualised continuing education for patients and allows educational resources to be targeted appropriately. The AdKnowl tool needs to be modifified according to local community culture, believe and knowledge so that it will be the version that suit to use in my setting.




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