Ancient Civilizations in Africa and Europe Essay

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The Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) was a predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire throughout Late Antiquity and the middle Ages. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania by its contemporaries, the empire was centered on the capital of Constantinople and was ruled by emperors in direct succession to the ancient Roman emperors after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The two main agents of continuity were the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Christian church. The Byzantine Empire existed for more than a thousand years (from approximately 306 to 1453). During its existence, the Empire remained one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe, despite setbacks and territorial losses, especially during the Roman–Persian and Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Byzantine Empire’s most important achievements were the preservation of forms, institutions and traditions of the old Roman Empire. Byzantium passed their intellectual heritage of Greco-Roman civilization on to later cultures.
The Sassanid Empire of Persia was recognized as one of the two main powers in Western Asia and Europe, alongside the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire. The Empire was founded by Ardashir I (r. 226-243) and lasted until 651. The Muslims overthrew the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanid Empire’s economic prosperity rested on agriculture, their location also made them suited for commerce. Zoroastrianism was the Persians official state religion. Zoroastrianism promoted hostility toward Christians because of the perception of their connections to Rome, Constantinople, and the Jewish population in Mesopotamia after Diaspora (dispersion of Jews from Jerusalem between 132 & 135). Byzantine Emperors preserv...

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...ceros horns, shells, and slaves to many Arab states. Interestingly it was largely Christian due to Christian missionaries who began converting subjects Nubian rulers around 600. The most powerful city on the coast of Africa was Kilwa and many Europeans began trading with these east African cities like Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Malindi. It was in this region that Islam began to spread and influence local cultures. The southernmost part of Africa unlike other regions was never impacted by European and Asian influences. Zimbabwe was settled in the 8th century by Bantu speaking people who bought their skills of ironworking and farming. Southern Africa remains largely unaffected by Europe until the Portuguese arrived in the 15th century. Shortly after the arrival of the Portuguese the Great Zimbabwe south east began to decline.

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