World Englsihes: Annotated Bibliography Essay

World Englsihes: Annotated Bibliography Essay

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The Use of World Englishes in Web Forums: Virtual Ethnography in the Digital Third Space

Research Question: How do users of World Englishes navigate websites as they bring their cultural and linguistic capital into play and create a digital Identity?

Kachru, Braj. (1976). Models of English for the Third World:
White Man’s Linguistic Burden or Language Pragmatics? TESOL Quarterly, 10(2), 221-339.

This purpose behind Kachru writing this article was to show how the views towards so-called ‘Third World Englishes’ were overly critical at the time this was written. He gives concrete examples of how there is a conflict in linguistics between those who saw those Englishes as being deficient, and the users of the language whom had adapted it for their own use. Furthermore, and I feel most important in the article, he offers seven ‘attitudinal sins’ against one of these linguistic experts, Prator, that used his writing to malign English spoken in India. By doing so Kachru turned the tables on those who had been trying to maintain the status quo. The first sin, ethnocentrism, shows that English is not something that is stable or even the same in the ‘first world’ countries. This could be used to show that English in other countries should not be seen as ‘lower’, but as a legitimate form of English. Second, wrong perceptions of British and America English, shows that there is no evidence for how American’s and Englishman view each other’s use of English. Third, not recognizing ‘Third World’ Englishes as culturally-bound, shows how Prator completely ignored how English was used culturally in the third world. Fourth, ignoring the systems of ‘Third World’ Englishes shows how Prator once again ignores all of the different variet...


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...ll be a major part of my literature review as I try to imagine what a model (if one could exists) would look like when I take into consideration how the digital world has influenced agents as they interact in web communities that have no national borders. Of course there is and will be a ‘hivemind’ of these same communities but where do they exist and what form do they take? Bruthiaux says that such a model would be prone to a non-critical view but if it did exists but does a model have to be? Looking at World Englishes from this critical perspective and how it is exchanged in the linguistic market of the digital third space would. As well, English as a lingua franca in these web communities would not look like the English used in academic circles but would be examples of authentic English used for a specific purpose as Discourse communities are formed or broken.

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