The works of philosophers Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill have been used more substantively in animal advocacy movements, even though Mill’s utilitarianism was genuinely animal amicable at the time; he believed that in any circumstance the right action would be the action that have a tendency to minimize the pain and suffering, and expand the pleasure and happiness, of all humans and animals which in return should impact our treatment of animals.
Immanuel Kant a philosopher who is often mention in animal advocacy movement did not believe we had any direct ethical duties to animal. However, he believed that the only reason we should avoid being cruel to animals is because in doing so we may develop cruel acts towards one another. According to Kant, we only owe ethical duties to rational being, and animals are not considered ethical beings. His reason for this is that rational beings have inviolable rights, owed to them because of their rational nature, and that each must be treated as an end in their self. (Jebulon, par. 2) The question on hand is do animals have rights? In utilitarianism the right thing to do, that action which maximizes happiness, might involve inflicting pain on someone, but animal advocates would more lean toward Kant’s philosophy that human have duties and responsibilities where animals are concerned. If a human uses the animal for its own, or even for the animal’s gain, the animal is still being used by the human. For that reason the human must provide it with the basic necessities and accept responsibility for the animal’s wellbeing.
Animal experimentation has been going on for decades, but the morals that surround the use and treatment of animals in laboratories raises the contr...
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...es and disadvantages. Both have the issue of valid stability on which they base their individual judgments. Perhaps animal testing has been marked with too much cruelty. Maybe it is a matter of abuse and overstated results being leaked to cover this truth of situation. On the other hand, others may look at it as being a good thing. Animal testing could be safer than testing on humans for the simple purpose of not knowing what the results could turn out to be. Everyone has different views, but it all depends on their moral decisions and the human-animal relationship that they see. The view taken by the lawmakers, politicians, and the groups arguing for or against animal testing, two things are made clear: Animals should not be made to suffer unnecessarily, and the animal research has reached outstanding treatments that have made a significant improvement in our world.
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