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Although a consistent definition in workplace spirituality has not been reached, mutuality in its definition delineated in literatures can be easily found. Sheep (2004) has been summed up into four themes. The first theme is self-workplace integration, that is the immersion of whole self into work. The second theme is meaning of work. People tend to find out meaning in their work. The meaning may be related to personal value, such as contributing to society and others, and go beyond monetary benefits. The third one is transcendence of self, connecting to something larger than self. This theme includes the connectedness to others, community, and the organization. The final theme is “personal growth and development of one’s inner life at work”. Organization can provide conditions for the growth and development of employees.
Despite various perspectives about workplace spirituality, three dimensions were focused in the present study. The model proposed by Milliman et al. (2003) was adopted. In this model, workplace spirituality includes three levels, namely individual, community and organization. This model embraces two above mentioned theme such as meaning of work and transcendence of self.
In the individual level of workplace spirituality, meaningfulness in work is involved in this level. People are motivated to actively search for and give meaning to their lives (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000; Frankl, 1992; Lips-Wiersma & Morris, 2009).
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