In school setting, the negative effects of sexual assault spill over into academic domain. Jordan and her colleagues (2014) found that that college women who suffered rape or sexual assault before or during college were more likely to have lower GPA than women without trauma. They postulated that sexual assault would lead to cognitive impair...
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... assault. We posit that expressive writing will facilitate cognitive impairment and depression of victimizations in college, which in turn, contribute to improve their academic achievement.
Depressive symptoms. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D scale) which consists of twenty short items is employed to assess current depressive symptoms (Radloff, 1977). The major components of depressive symptomatology consists of depressed mood, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbance (Radloff, 1977). Subjects respond to how often they have felt this way during the past week on a four-point Likert scale which ranges from 0 (rarely or none of the time) to 3(most or all of the time). One example of item is, “I thought my life had been a failure”.
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