Windows Networking

Windows Networking

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Windows Networking

How does DDNS replace WINS in Windows 2000 and later?

DDNS replaces WINS by allowing DNS clients to update information in the DNS database files. IP Addresses and DNS records stay in synch so that you can use DNS and DHCP together seamlessly. WINS listens to NBT broadcasts and can not update IP Address information if the DHCP lease expires since the NBT broadcasts registers the machines IP Address with the WINS Server at boot up. NetBIOS is not routable which further complicates things. WINS servers use NetBIOS names whereas DNS relies on hostnames.

Under what circumstances would we still use WINS?

WINS should be used whenever your network contains pre-Windows 2000 operating systems or you run NetBIOS dependent services on your network. Pre-Windows 2000 operating systems are dependent on NetBIOS for important domain related activities such as log on authentication and service location. WINS should also be considered as a means to improve resolution performance. You must be very cautious when deploying WINS Servers. Too many can create more problems than it is worth. WINS can help increase resolution speed because it is higher on the list for NetBIOS resolution. The resolution sequence is as follows:

NetBIOS Remote Name Cache






As you can see, DNS lookups are performed last, after other methods are employed.

What are the key differences between Windows 2000 and Windows 2003?

Top 10 Reasons Why to Upgrade from Windows 2000 Server to Windows Server 2003 R2
Windows Server 2003 R2 builds upon the increased security, reliability, and performance provided by Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) to provide a more secure and dependable platform on which to deliver business-critical applications and Web services. At the same time, Windows Server 2003 R2 is easier to manage and integrate into existing environments. This page describes the major new features and improvements included in Windows Server 2003 R2.

Centralize user authentication and authorization
Introduced in Windows 2000, the Active Directory directory service simplifies the administration of complex network directories and makes it easy to locate resources on even the largest networks. This enterprise-class service is scalable, is built on Internet-standard technologies, and integrates with the Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2003 R2.
Windows Server 2003 R2 provides numerous ease-of-use improvements to Active Directory and new features, including cross-forest trusts, the ability to rename domains, and the ability to deactivate attributes and classes in the schema so that their definitions can be changed.

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Simplify end user policy management

Administrators can use Group Policy to define the settings and allowed actions for your users and computers. In contrast with local policy, organizations can use Group Policy to set policies that apply across a given site, domain, or organizational unit in Active Directory. Policy-based management simplifies such tasks as system update operation, application installation, user profiles, and lockdown of desktops.

As an add-in component to Windows Server 2003, the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) provides the new framework for managing Group Policy. With GPMC, Group Policy becomes much easier to use, a benefit that will enable more organizations to better utilize Active Directory and take advantage of its powerful management features.

Streamline access to external or security-enhanced domains

Use Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) to streamline business-to-business (B2B) communications. ADFS extends the value of Active Directory deployments to facilitate collaboration with partners, resulting in increased user productivity, greater information technology (IT) efficiency, and improved security—and, thus, a greater return on investments made in software.

Schedule point-in-time critical data copies

As part of Volume Shadow Copy service, you can configure point-in-time copies of critical data volumes without interrupting service. These copies can then be used for service restoration or archival purposes. Your users can retrieve archived versions of their documents that are invisibly maintained on the server.

Deliver more secure and scalable Web application servers

Enhancements in Windows SharePoint Services, Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0, Windows Server 2003 R2 x64, and Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 can help you deliver more secure and scalable Web applications, extend business infrastructure over the Web, and control costs.

Windows SharePoint Services delivers a cost-effective collaboration solution that can be deployed, configured, and managed quickly. It is easily extended to the extranet using ADFS to enable efficient collaboration with partners and customers across organizational boundaries.

ASP.NET enables fast development of rich, DSI-ready (Dynamic Systems Initiative) Web services and applications using the .NET Framework included in Windows Server 2003 R2. Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 simplifies and accelerates configuration, deployment, and management of more secure, scalable Web applications.

IIS 6.0 delivers a security-enhanced, high-performance Web server that is significantly enhanced by technology offered in Windows Server R2. The highest possible security is ensured by a built-in security advisor. Downtime and errors are greatly reduced with improved debugging capabilities. Finally, x64 supportability allows IIS to deliver more performance for less money.

Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 is a full-featured Web server that enables Web applications and XML Web services. IIS 6.0 has been completely re-architected with a new fault-tolerant process model that greatly boosts the reliability of Web sites and applications.

Optimize branch office infrastructure

Windows Server 2003 R2 provides the underlying technologies needed to simplify integration of branch office servers into a larger enterprise IT ecosystem and still provide reliable and consistent access to data for your users. Performance, availability, and productivity—benefits usually associated with a local branch office server—are strengthened, and environmental challenges—such as connectivity limitations and management overhead—are mitigated with the R2 release.

For instance, Windows Server 2003 R2 allows your users to remain productive in the event of a network failure by accessing up-to-date local replicas of remote data and information. The failover with fail-back capabilities in Windows Server 2003 R2 means that if a branch office server fails, branch office users will automatically be connected to a designated failover server, minimizing any disruption. Once the local branch server is up, users will automatically be connected back to their branch server.Bandwidth throttling and scheduling ensures that the most productive use of network bandwidth is made during office hours. Scheduling replication and setting network quotas for replication can minimize the impact of large volumes of data being sent over the wide area network (WAN).

Improve storage management

By using the File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) and Storage Manager for SANs in Windows Server 2003 R2, you can improve storage management across IT resources and optimize storage space on those resources.

File Server Resource Manager (FSRM)

This feature enables administrators to understand how storage is being used and to manage storage through storage reports, applying quotas to volumes and folders, and screening files on the server. With FSRM, you can better plan and optimize storage by creating quotas, creating file screens, and scheduling storage reports.

Storage Manager for SANs

This enables customers to provision storage on storage subsystems on a storage area network (SAN). Based on Microsoft Virtual Disk Service (VDS) technology, Storage Manager for SANs allows provisioning on Fiber Channel and Internet SCSI (iSCSI) storage subsystems. This feature is switch and HBA agnostic.

Enhance application availability

The ability to cluster up to (and including) eight nodes is available only in Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition and Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter Edition. This service provides high availability and scalability for mission-critical applications such as databases, messaging systems, and file and print services.

Clustering works by enabling multiple servers (nodes) to remain in constant communication. If one of the nodes in a cluster becomes unavailable as a result of failure or maintenance, another node immediately begins providing service, a process known as failover. In this event, your users can continue their activities, unaware that service is now being provided from a different server (node).

Better secure your wireless LAN access

Your organization can move to a security model that helps ensures all physical access is authenticated and encrypted, based on the 802.1X support in the Windows Server 2003 family. Support through 802.1X helps ensure that only trusted systems are allowed to connect and exchange packets with security-enhanced networks. Because 802.1X provides dynamic key determination, 802.1X wireless network encryption is dramatically improved by addressing many of the known issues associated with wired equivalent privacy (WEP) used by IEEE 802.11 networks.
This feature provides enhanced security and performance improvements for wireless local area networks (LANs), such as automatic key management, user authentication, and authorization prior to LAN access. It also provides access control for Ethernet networks when wired Ethernet is used in public locations.

Build the most cost-effective virtual operating environments

When you purchase a Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition license, you can use the software in one physical operating environment and up to four virtual operating environments simultaneously.

Virtual Server 2005 R2 is ideal for server consolidation and is an ideal way to consolidate multiple workloads onto one physical server. This helps increase efficiency for operations and hardware usage.

With Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition and Virtual Server 2005 R2, customers have a cost-effective server virtualization technology engineered for the Windows Server System platform.

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a domain in Mixed mode versus Native mode?

Those familiar with Active Directory in Windows 2000 will recall that once installed, domains could be configured in one of two modes – mixed mode, and native mode. In mixed mode, an Active Directory domain was still capable of supporting Windows NT 4.0 domain controllers, providing companies with the ability to transition their domains from the old model to the new directory-based design. Although mixed mode made the deployment of Active Directory in existing environments more flexible, it did come with limitations, namely the inability to configure universal groups. Once a domain was switched to native mode, all domain controllers had to be running Windows 2000, and using universal groups became possible.

In Windows Server 2003 Active Directory, the concept of a domain "mode" has been re-branded as a "functional level". This is definitely not a bad idea, since the functional level of a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain not only impacts the operating system versions that can function as domain controllers, but also the ability to utilize some of the new features in Active Directory. Furthermore, Windows Server 2003 also introduces an entirely new concept, known as a forest functional level. Along the same lines as a domain functional level, the forest functional level configured impacts the ability to implement certain new Active Directory features.

The domain functional levels associated with Windows Server 2003 are outlined below. For each functional level, the versions of Windows that are supported as domain controllers are also listed.

Domain functional level Domain controllers supported
Windows 2000 mixed (default) Windows NT 4.0
Windows 2000
Windows Server 2003
Windows 2000 native Windows 2000
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 interim Windows NT 4.0
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003
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