Heywood reminds us that parties are quite a recent innovation; indeed they first appeared at the beginning of the nineteenth century in the United-Sates of America with the creation of the Federalist and the Democratic-Republican parties (2007, p. 273). And yet it can be observed that parties are now omnipresent, even in dictatorships where they exist as single-parties state. Heywood points out that in 1950 political parties were used to administer 80% of states in the world but that number decreased with the rise of military regimes in the developing world in the 1960s. However they increased anew with the upgrade of democracy that marked the 1980s and 1990s in Asia, Africa and Latin America, as well as former communist states (Heywood, 2007, pp. 271-272). ...
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...e: Palgrave MacMillan.
• Heywood, A. (2007), Politics. 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
• Stoker, G. (2006), Why Politics Matters: Making Democracy work. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
• Stoker, G. (2006), ‘Explaining Political Disenchantment: Finding Pathways to Democratic Renewal’, The Political Quarterly, 77 (2), April-June 2006 [Online]. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-923X.2006.00761.x/abstract;jsessionid=9098426F8D11C447FFF8A9A485132C3A.f04t02?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false (Accessed: 27th February 2014)
• Whiteley, F. P. (2010), ‘Is the party over? The decline of party activism and membership across the democratic world’, Political Parties, 17 (1), pp. 21-44, Sage Journals January 2011 [Online]. Available at: http://ppq.sagepub.com/content/17/1/21.full.pdf+html (Accessed: 27th February 2014)
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