Explain with suitable examples the applications of microbes in industry (e.g. Medical, Food, Pharmaceutical, Waste Treatment etc.)
Give the names of the microorganism(s) involved in each process described.
Explain, with suitable examples microbial production of :
Primary metabolites (e.g. amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, solvents, and organic acids)
Secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics, pesticides and animal and plant growth factors)
Importance of recombinant DNA technology in microbial biotechnology
A. There are millions of different Micro-organisms everywhere in air, food, soil and water, in digestive tracts of living humans and animals. Interestingly, most of these groups perform useful activities in nature like synthesizing metabolites and enzymes much needed for the preservation or production of different products in nature. Studies and experiments based on their physiology and function, they are being used in different industries like food industry, pharmaceutical industry, medicine etc.
Some Molds are used in food industries and are also an ingredient in some food products. The Genus Mucor is used in the manufacture of oriental fermented foods. Genus Aspergillus is used in the synthesis of Citric acid and Gluconic acids. The process of ripening of Camembert cheese is carried out by Penicillium camemberti of the genus Penicillium. The most widely used molds in the production of blue-veined cheeses are Penicillium Roqueforti and Penicillium Glaucum. These are blue-green coloured molds which grow within the cheese and breaks down the complex organic molecules in their simple form. This makes the fibrous structure smooth giving the final product good flavor...
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... when cells divide rapidly and essential metabolites are synthesized by microbes. These include amino acids, nucleotides, proteins, steroids, lipids, carbohydrates etc.
For e.g Vit B12 which is produced only by bacteria and archaea as they possess the necessary enzymes required, is vital for the normal functioning of the brain and the nervous system. Species belonging to the genera acetobacterium, bacillus, mycobacterium, pseudomonas etc can biosynthesis vit B12. Streptomyces griseus and pseudomonas denitrificans are the mostly widely used species used in the production of VitB12.
Phytosterols, a mixture of soybean steroid can be synthesized into two different kinds of steroids by microbial transformation known as catabolism. This synthesizes either C-19 steroid a precursor to the sex hormone or C-22, a precursor to adrenocortical hormones.
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