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The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: there is no internal, direct evidence for authorship. Sometime early in the second-century the Gospel of Matthew was designated as such. (This at least offers prima facie evidence that the apostle Matthew wrote this work.) As far as internal, indirect evidence is concerned, three data should be noted. It suggests that he was a Jew, because a gentile would tend not to be interested in such teaching tradition. It suggests that the author was a Jew, since a Jew would be concerned to understand Jesus as such. It is possible that this was an attempt at self-depreciating sort of self-identification on the part of the author.
For whom was the Gospel of Matthew written?
From the data covered when considering the question of the authorship of the Gospel of Matthew, who do you think the intended readers were?
Internal, indirect evidence for the intended readership of the Gospel of Matthew is the concern of the author to present the fulfillment nature of Jesus' ministry. This implies that the intended readers were Jews. In addition, much of the teaching material unique to the Gospel of Matthew is only fully understandable by and of interest to a Jewish readership:
That the author wrote for a Jewish readership is confirmed, if the external, direct evidence that Matthew wrote a gospel in Hebrew/Aramaic for Jews is correct and if this original text has some connection to the canonical Gospel of Matthew, written in Greek.
When was the Gospel of Matthew written?
There is no internal, direct evidence for the date of the composition of the Gospel of Matthew. There is, however, a piece of internal, indirect evidence to consider. The Gospel of Matthew transmits several sayings of Jesus that concern the role of the Temple in the life of the Jewish people (Matt 5:23-24; 12:5-7; 17:24-27; 23:16-22). On the assumption that the author would not include sayings of Jesus that were not longer relevant to his readers, it might be argued that the Gospel of Matthew was written before the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. Do you find this convincing?
Where was the Gospel of Matthew written?
Based on what you know so far, what do you conclude about the place of the composition of the gospel of Matthew?
The Gospel of Matthew was probably written in or near Palestine, where there were many Jewish believers.
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Why was the Gospel of Matthew written?
There is no internal, direct evidence concerning the purpose of the Gospel of Matthew. Neither is there any external, direct evidence. Thus, one must attempt to infer the author's purpose indirectly from the contents of the gospel. What do you conclude about the purpose of the Gospel of Matthew from its contents?
It is safe to say that the author of the Gospel of Matthew aimed to bring together material in order to write a more comprehensive gospel than that of the Gospel of Mark. His emphasis on the fact that Jesus' ministry fulfilled scripture and his inclusion of units of Jesus' teaching that was only fully understandable by and of interest to Jews seems to indicate that he intended to write a gospel for a Jewish readership, rather than a gentile one.
Who wrote the Gospel of Mark?
The Gospel of Mark is anonymous; there is no internal, direct evidence for its authorship. Only sometime during the second century was the title "According to Mark" or "The Gospel According to Mark" affixed to the work, in order to distinguish it from the other gospels, which in itself counts as external evidence that Mark wrote it. There is, however, internal, indirect evidence to consider. This evidence consists of certain characteristics of the gospel from which one can infer something about the identity of its author.
For whom was the Gospel of Mark written?
There is no internal, direct evidence for the intended readership. There is, however, some internal, indirect evidence: It suggests that the intended readers were not Aramaic-speaking, It suggests that the intended readers were not Jews.
When was the Gospel of Mark written?
The date of the gospel is difficult to determine with precision. There is no internal, direct evidence nor any internal, indirect evidence, although traditionally scholars have tried to date it after the destruction of Jerusalem based on Mark 13: it is assumed that the reference to "the abomination that causes desolation" in Mark 13:14 is an allusion to Titus's destruction of the Jerusalem Temple. But this is not so obvious as is often thought. The external, direct evidence is as follows. (It should be noted that tradition places Peter's death in Rome during Nero's persecutions [64-68].)
Where was the Gospel of Mark written?
There is no internal, direct evidence to conclude where the Gospel of Mark was written (provenance). The internal, indirect evidence has already been considered in dealing with the intended readership. It is as follows.
The evidences suggests that the Gospel of Mark was written in Rome. Since the existence of Latinisms and Latin translations of Greek words in the Gospel of Mark implies Latin readers, it is probable that Rome (or Italy) was the place where it was composed. Since the reference to the woman in Tyre called "a Greek, racially a Syro-Phoenician" implies that it was written for Romans, it is probable that the place of the composition of the Gospel of Mark was Rome (or Italy). The fact that the identification of Alexander and Rufus as the sons of Simon the Cyrene implies that the intended readers are Roman Christians further suggests that Mark wrote his gospel in Rome, where Alexander and Rufus resided.
Why was the Gospel of Mark written?
Internal, direct evidence for Mark's purpose in writing is found in Mark 1:1: "The archê of the gospel of Jesus Christ." It is possible to take this verse as a title for the entire work, so that Mark's intention is to explain to his Christian hearers/readers the beginning or the basis (archê) of the good news that they believed. If this is the meaning of the term archê, what is the purpose of the Gospel of Mark?
Mark aims to give more information about Jesus, the focus of the proclamation of the early church. The Roman Christians believed the good news consisting of Jesus Christ, but needed to know more about the life, death and resurrection of the one in whom they believed, the arche of the gospel of Jesus Christ. From the contents of the gospel itself, he stresses Jesus' passion and resurrection, but also includes many accounts of Jesus' healings, exorcisms, controversies and some teaching. Mark does not intend, however, to provide a completely chronological account, as already indicated.
Who wrote the Gospel of Luke?
Like the other synoptic gospels, the Gospel of Luke is anonymous. It should be noted, however, that the Gospel of Luke is the first half of a two-volume work, the other half being the Book of Acts (see Acts 1:1). Since the same author wrote both the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts, the latter may be used in helping us to answer some of the six questions relating to the former.
For whom was the Gospel of Luke written?
Luke identified his intended reader as Theophilus.
When was the Gospel of Luke written?
There is no internal, direct evidence for dating the composition of the Gospel of Luke, but there is some internal, indirect evidence.
It is arguable that the Book of Acts was written before Paul's release from his first imprisonment. Luke said nothing about Paul's release, because it had not yet happened. This would mean that the Gospel of Luke was written even before that.
Where was the Gospel of Luke written?
There is no internal evidence for determining where Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke. External evidence is limited to the statement in the Anti-Marcion Prologue that Luke composed his gospel "in the regions around Achaia." This is consistent with Luke's being an associate of Paul, because Paul worked in Achaia.
Why was the Gospel of Luke written?
Based on what he wrote in the Prologue, what was Luke's purpose in writing (Luke 1:1-3)?
Luke states directly why he wrote the Gospel of Luke in Luke 1:1-3: the Gospel of Luke was an attempt to write a definitive work on the life and passion of Jesus, in order that Theophilus might know that what was taught was trustworthy.
Who wrote the Gospel of John?
Of all the gospels, the Gospel of John is the most disputed concerning authorship. The data to assess are greater in quantity than the data relevant to the authorship of the synoptics gospels. What is presented is a simplification of the evidence.
In John 21, the Postscript of the gospel, "the disciple whom Jesus loved" is said to be the one who witnessed to these things and who wrote these things (21:24); he is, in other words, not only the author but the authority standing behind the gospel. The disciple whom Jesus loved is said to be the one who leaned back on Jesus' breast to talk to Jesus during the meal. Since he asks Jesus about this disciple, Peter is eliminated as a candidate for "the disciple whom Jesus loved."
For whom was the Gospel of John written?
As already indicated, early tradition places John the son of Zebedee in Ephesus when he composed his gospel. What do you conclude from this about the intended readership?
John probably wrote for the Ephesians or maybe the churches in Asia Minor in general.
When was the Gospel of John written?
Dating the Gospel of John is difficult, if not impossible; some place it before 70 and others as late as the 90's. The evidence is insufficient to draw a firm conclusion. It was once thought by many that the Gospel of John was written well into the second century, but the discovery of a fragment of a copy of the Gospel of John, known as Rylands Papyrus 457, which is dated to no later than 150, suggests that the gospel was written earlier than the second century, since it would take some time for the gospel to have a wide circulation.
Where was the Gospel of John written?
From what has been concluded so far, where was the Gospel of John written?
The Gospel of John was written in or near Ephesus.
Why was the Gospel of John written?
What does John 20:31 indicate about the purpose of the Gospel of John?
It indicates that the Gospel of John was written for evangelistic purposes: to convince its readers that Jesus was the Christ, the son of God, and that by believing they may have life in his name.