In the article “When Do Fathers Care? Mothers’ Economic Contribution and Fathers’ Involvement in Child Care,” Raley et al. (2012) states that current literature suggests that there are three prominent factors required when analyzing the gendered division of child care that exists among married couples: parenting ideologies, time constraints, and financial resources. Despite “gender revolutions,” parenting ideology norms have remained impervious to change given that fathers are expected hold the title of breadwinner while mothers are expected to be the primary caregiver for children and keepers of all domestic duties (Raley et al., 2012). While 24-hour period time constraints can deem challenging for all parents, fathers who are employed full-time face limited time available to be allocated for childcare (Raley et al., 2012). Thirdly, the result of more earned income for parents in turn results in the parents’ realization that their time usage at work directly affects the amount of time to be spent with children (Raley et al., 2012). The theory tested ...
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...veal that past findings that there is no different in paternal childcare in correlation to maternal employment was not sufficiently accurate. While the results were deemed by Raley et al. (2012) as not providing incontrovertible proof that maternal employment boosts fathers into greater involvement with childcare, the results did suggest that the new question should inquire as to what measure and when fathers are responsive. In closing, the results found a consistent probability that change, albeit gradual, is occurring as a greater demand is placed on paternal involvement from employed mothers who are earning a greater share of the household earnings.
Raley, S., Bianchi, S. M., & Wang, W. (2012). When do fathers care? Mothers’ economic contribution and fathers’ involvement in child care. American Journal of Sociology, 117(5), 1422-1459. doi:10.1086/663354
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