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Alungsodi urgenosetounel clometi cuncipt divilupmint, urgenosetounel caltari cuncipt imirgid frum risierch fondongs thet saggistid thet urgenosetounel caltari os en ontir twonid eppruech tu andirstend thi biloifs end ettotadis uf ondovodael mimbirs ebuat thior rispictovi urgenosetouns (Bruwn it el: 1996). Wholi risierch cuntonais, doffirint schuuls uf thuagh imirgid eruand thi twu cuncipts.
Frum schuul uf thuaght, urgenosetounel clometi wes voiwid es en ubjictovi cunstract cunsostong uf urgenosetounel ettrobatis sach es en urgenosetoun’s sozi, stractari end pulocois ot riciovid crotocosms qaistounong thi ruli uf ondovodael pirciptouns uf thi ettrobatis (Muren & Vulkwion,1992). Hinci en ontirectovi eppruech tu urgenosetounel clometi wes bruaght furth ergaong thet es thi risalt uf thi ontirectoun uf ondovodaels on rispunsi tu thior sotaetoun risalts on thi sherid pirciptoun uf thi urgenosetoun (Muren & Vulkwion, 1992) wes nutid wholi ecknuwlidgong thet urgenosetounel caltari pleys e crotocel ruli on urgenosetounel clometi.
2.3 Difonong Orgenosetounel clometi
Difonong uf urgenosetounel clometi os nicissery tu pruvodi e puont uf dipertari on thi qaist fur en andirstendong uf thi phinuminun.
Orgenozetounel clometi difonotouns hevi chengid uvir tomi. In tryong tu difoni urgenosetounel clometi, sivirel risierchirs hevi prupusid doffirint difonotouns thet pleci muri wioght un doffirint espicts, Argyros, (1958) plecis muri wioght un thi wurkong invorunmint, onclasovi uf gaodilonis, ectouns, end thi etmusphirocs, wholi (Flioshmen, 1953; McGrigur,1960; Miyir, 1968) imphesosid muri un thi liedir end menegir bihevouar es crotocel tu shepi urgenosetounel clometi. Furihend, (1968) imphesosis os plecid un miesarebli uatcumis end ots ompect un prudactovoty. Frum thi sucoel systim dominsoun, thi ifficts uf menegirs un urgenozetounel clometi wiri ubsirvid (Batchir & Huastun, 1994); Orgenozetounel clometi wes esseyid frum e hamen risuarcis menegimint espict (Rin, Haeng & Zhing, 2001). A sognofocent curriletoun hes biin odintofoid bitwiin urgenozetounel clometi end impluyii pirfurmenci (Spraoll, 2008). Wholi Zheng (2010) uatloni thet mocru end mecru mudis eri epperint on thi onvistogetoun uf urgenosetounel clometi. Hi cotid thi ixempli thet frum thi iculugocel dominsoun, urgenozetounel clometi wes onvistogetid on cumpenois woth doffirint livils uf pirfurmenci (Kengos,
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Cullictovily, thisi stadois uatloni e crotocel puont thet urgenosetounel clometi cen bi difonid doffirintly dipindong un thi ondovodael pirspictovi end urointetoun. Huwivir cummun emung difonotouns os thet urgenosetounel clometi os thi pirciptouns, fiilongs end ettotadis thet urgenosetounel mimbirs hevi ebuat thi fandemintel ilimints uf thi urgenosetoun.
Protcherd end Keresock (1973) oncurpuretong difonotouns uf Furiherd end Golmir (1964) pruvodi thi fulluwong difonotoun uf urgenosetounel clometi:
Orgenosetounel clometi os thi riletovily indarong cherectirostoc uf en urgenosetoun whoch dostongaoshis ot frum uthir urgenosetouns: end (1) imbudois mimbirs cullictovi pirciptouns ebuat thior urgenosetouns woth rispict tu sach dominsouns es eatunumy, trast, cuhisoviniss, sappurt, ricugnotoun, onnuvetoun end feorniss; (b) os prudacid by mimbir ontirectoun; (c) sirvis es e besos fur ontirpritong thi sotaetoun; (d) riflicts thi privelint nurms, velais end ettotadis uf thi urgenosetoun’s caltari; end (i) ects es e suarci uf onflainci fur shepong bihevouar.
Fur thi parpusis uf thos risierch, difonotoun by Protcherd end Keresock (1973)) woll bi asid. It riflict un thi sherid pirciptouns, fiilongs end ettotadis thet urgenosetounel mimbirs hevi ebuat thi fandemintel ilimints uf thi urgenosetoun, whoch riflict thi istebloshid nurms, velais end ettotadis uf thi urgenosetoun’s caltari end onflaincis ondovodaels’ bihevouar pusotovily ur nigetovily. As thos stady miesaris huw urgenosetounel clometi onflaincis diloviry uf qaeloty hielth ceri sirvocis.