Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is “a syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement and impaired systolic function of one or both ventricles.”4(1175) Through medical technology and proper medical regimen, people afflicted with this syndrome today, are living longer and are undergoing surgeries that may not be cardiac-related. Therefore, anesthesia providers may encounter increasing amounts of patients with DCM as compared in the past. As anesthesia providers, it is important to have an understanding of the pathophysiology of DCM and its anesthetic implication. This topic will focus on anatomy and physiology of DCM, the effects it has on the anesthetic plan, and a review of current literature.
Anatomy and Physiology
Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy will often have normal thickness of the ventricles with an enlarged right, left, or both ventricular cavities. In the early stages of this disease, there is an initial increase in the stroke volume from the increased force of contraction due to the stretching of the myocardium, which is described by the Frank-Starling mechanism. However, as the disease progresses, the heart loses that compensatory mechanism leading to a decrease in the strength of the contraction of the heart, hence, a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction. There are two types of DCM, primary and secondary. Primary dilated cardiomyopathy are usually idiopathic in nature, however, “approximately 30% of cases” have a “familial transmission pattern.”3(138) Secondary dilated cardiomyopathy, on the other hand, are associated with “alcohol abuse, cocaine abuse, the peripartum state, pheochromocytoma, infectious diseases (human immunodeficiency virus infection), uncontrolled tachycardia, Duchenne’s muscul...
... middle of paper ...
...ncrease work of the heart.
Anesthetic management for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy is challenging. It is imperative that there should be a complete preoperative assessment to tailor the anesthetic plan specifically for the patient. Ensure that the patient has an optimized cardiac status and does not have any symptoms of heart failure prior to elective surgeries because it increases morbidity and mortality. The anesthesia provider needs to be very vigilant throughout the perioperative period and prompt administration of inotropes or anti-arrhythmic medications may be required. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy presents a challenge to anesthetic providers, thus, a good understanding of the disease, its affects, along with a thorough preoperative assessment, will be beneficial in formulating a customized anesthetic plan to prevent adverse outcomes.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Dilated Cardiomyopathy What is dilated cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a form of heart disease in which the heart’s main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, stretches and thins (dilates) and can’t pump blood as well as a healthy heart. Dilated, meaning enlarged, cardio, meaning heart, myo, meaning muscle, and pathy, meaning disease. So, this directly means that it’s a disease of the heart muscle. There are multiple types of cardiomyopathy, such as idiopathic, hypertrophic, restrictive, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.... [tags: Heart, Blood, Hypertension, Ventricle]
1264 words (3.6 pages)
- Introduction Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is “a syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement and impaired systolic function of one or both ventricles.”4(1175) Through medical technology and proper medical regimen, people afflicted with this syndrome today, are living longer and are undergoing surgeries that may not be cardiac-related. Therefore, anesthesia providers may encounter increasing amounts of patients with DCM as compared in the past. As anesthesia providers, it is important to have an understanding of the pathophysiology of DCM and its anesthetic implication.... [tags: disease, systolic, medical technology]
1352 words (3.9 pages)
- WHAT IS A CARDIOMYOPATHY. Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle, causing the heart muscle to become enlarged, thick or rigid. In rare cases, the muscle tissue in the heart is replaced with scar tissue. As cardiomyopathy worsens, the heart becomes weaker. It 's less able to pump blood through the body and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. This can lead to heart failure and rhythm problems. In turn, heart failure can cause fluid to build up in the lungs, ankles, feet, legs or abdomen.... [tags: Cardiomyopathy, Heart, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy]
1553 words (4.4 pages)
- Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heat muscle and has many different types. Dilated, Hypertrophic, and Restrictive are the three main types of cardiomyopathy. Each of these types have different causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments. In cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle can become enlarge, thick, or rigid, and in some rare incidents the muscle tissue can become replaced with scar tissue. As the condition worsens, the heart becomes weaker and less able to pump blood throughout the body. The heart will also become unable to maintain a normal electrical rhythm.... [tags: Heart, Cardiology, Blood, Cardiomyopathy]
1436 words (4.1 pages)
- Introduction: Heart disease is the highest reported cause of death in the United States. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012), reported that heart disease accounted for nearly 600,000 deaths, even trumping cancer by approximately 25,000. Health conditions that severely damage or weaken the heart can lead to heart failure (Mayo Clinic, 2013). Cardiomyopathy is heart disease that targets the myocardium, causing it to enlarge, thicken or become rigid. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute characterizes cardiomyopathy into to four different types: dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic.... [tags: Heart Disease, Medical]
1871 words (5.3 pages)
- Cardiomyopathy, by definition, means the weakening of the heart muscle. The heart is operated by a striated muscle that relies on the autonomic nervous system to function. Cardiomyopathy is diagnosed in four different ways based on what caused the illness and exactly what part of the heart is weakened. The four main types of cardiomyopathy are dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. One other category of cardiomyopathy that is diagnosed is “unclassified cardiomyopathy.” Unclassified cardiomyopathy is the weakening of the heart that does not fit into the main four categories.... [tags: Heart, Cardiology, Myocardial infarction, Blood]
1712 words (4.9 pages)
- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), big word and sounds scary, but it isn’t as scary as you might think. This disease affects the myocardium (middle layer of the heart that helps it contract) by becoming abnormally thick and this doesn’t allow the heart to pump normally. Some people go undiagnosed for quite some time since there are little to no symptoms, some however have shortness of breath. HCM also affects the electrical system In the heart which can cause life threatening arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat).... [tags: myocardium, heart, death]
567 words (1.6 pages)
- Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is a widely studied and common genetic heart disease which has many therapeutic treatments. This is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations of the sarcomeres in the cells that make up the tissue of the heart (B. Maron et al., 2003, p. 1690). It usually affects the left ventricle of the heart which is responsible for sending, or pumping, blood to the entire body (Nishimura, Ommen, & Tajik, 2003, p.... [tags: genetic disease, family history, blood]
1754 words (5 pages)
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited structural cardiac disease which results in the hypertrophy of the myocytes in the cardiac myocardium. The non-obstructive variant of this cardiomyopathy results in uniform enlargement of the ventricles, rather than asymmetric enlargement of the septum only. Normal physiology of the heart defines cardiac output (CO) as a function of both heart rate and stroke volume. When the heart needs to increase CO to meet increased demands of the body, it can do so by either increasing the heart rate or the stroke volume.... [tags: Cardiology, Heart, Hypertension, Ventricle]
1366 words (3.9 pages)
- Approximately, 1 of every 500 people is affected with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, it is important for patients to understand the dynamics of the disease as it could potentially be life threatening. In most cases, the patients quality of life is not affected, but a few will experience symptoms that cause significant discomfort or undetected complications that could lead to sudden cardiac death. With that in mind, it would be beneficial to recognize what it is, specific causes, the steps of diagnoses, and the options for treatment.... [tags: inherited disease, cardiac muscle, HCM]
1530 words (4.4 pages)
- Contrasting, Unknown Stalin by Zhores Medvedev and Stalin:Breaker of Nations by Robert Conquest
- Current Drug Policy in the United States
- International Business: The Globalization of Businesses
- Audience Attitude Theories: Charities Campaigns Project
- The Film Industry in Florida
- An Analysis of The Painted Door by Sinclair Ross