Hobbes waves the flag of a monarchical government. In his state of nature, humans are driven by appetites and desires. Human beings enter into a state of competition when they fight for what they consider the greatest good. Given the situation that variability of desires, a scarcity of resources, and an unavoidable fulfillment of human desires (felicity), violent and unpredictable outcomes constitute a state of war. Thus, when hu...
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...e life and property of the individuals. Monarchy, after all, isn’t ideal to retain active spontaneity, and is useless in guiding the people to enlightenment.
The sword, in Hobbes’ words, is a common authority that the subjects yield to. It is a manifestation of the Hobbesian human nature, which is chaotic and self-interest-driven. Obviously, Hobbes’ overly pessimistic reception of human nature is seen as an overstatement of the reality. Rousseau and Kant, whose supports for the general will and categorical imperative, produce two hugely varied forms of entity. All in all, it was the thinkers’ understanding of the human nature that propels their ideal system of governance, which, essentially, corrects chaos and instability, and leads to desirable outcome both in terms of the fulfillment of individual and social demands, and the development of the humanity as a whole.
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