Political ecology began in the 1960s as a response to the neglect of the environment and political externalities from which it is spawned. Political ecology is the analysis of social forms and humans organizations that interact with the environment, the phenomena in and affecting the developing world. Political ecology also works to provide critiques and alternatives for negative reactions in the environment. This line of work draws from all sorts of fields, such as geography, forestry, environmental sociology, and environmental history in a complex relationship between politics, nature, and economics. It is a multi-sided field where power strategies are conceived to remove the unsustainable modern rationality and instead mobilize social actions in the globalized world for a sustainable future. The field is focused in political ethics to refresh sustainability, and the core questions of the relationships between society and ecology, and the large impacts of globalization of humanized nature.
Political ecology also involves conflicts between people and institutions over resources, in both developed world and developing world contexts. The use of natural resources and the creation of a sustainable environment is a critical issue that must be observed from different perspectives. Does it permit sustainable resources? Is it a threat to local security? How is income distributed through societies, both gender and location wise? Who decides how these are to be classified? These are key problems in political ecology.
Policy making. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, often referred to as the framework convention because it was the original effort to protect the ozone layer, was established in...
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... Carbon Market is a form of trading that specifically targets carbon dioxide (calculated in tonnes of carbon dioxide) and is the bulk of emissions trading. Carbon trading is a common method countries use to meet their obligations from the Kyoto Protocol, which involves an attempt to reduce future climate change.
Outside if politics, there are also groups called NGOs: (Non-governmental Organizations) that are not run by state or local governments that operate as nonprofits organizations; these groups have created a web of global development networks in response to governmental decision making dominated by the core (e.g., WTO, IMF, World Bank). A main point of NGOs is to have undeveloped and developing countries participate. Unfortunately, this is sometimes seen as counter-hegemonic, which is where nations dominate other nations, both economically and politically.
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