The materialist and the idealist are the two approaches in the study of culture. The materialist approach concerns itself with Marxist and the Frankfurt School’s literary criticisms on culture with an emphasis on class relations and social structure. Contrary to materialism, idealism governs itself in the creation of concepts to adequately explain the current world through ideas through the literary works of Matthew Arnold, F.R. Leavis and Q.D. Leavis, hence the Arnoldian and Leavisism criticisms of culture.
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.... and Horkheimer, M. “The Culture Industry; Enlightenment as Mass Deception”, in J. Curran et al. (eds), Mass Communication & Society, E. Arnold, London, 1977, pp. 349-374.
Barker, Chris. Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. Third Edition ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd, 2008. Print.
Conrad, P. Television; The Medium and Its Manners, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1982, pp. 1-16.
Marx, K. “The Materialist Conception of History”, in T.B. Bottomore & M. Rubels (eds), Karl Marx; Seleted Writings in Sociology & Social Philosophy, Penguin, Ringwood, 1973, pp. 67-80.
Schiach, M. “TV: Technology and Cultural Decline”, Discourse on Popular Culture, Polity Press, 4 pages.
Swingewood, A. “The Theory of Mass Society”, The Myth of Mass Culture, London, 1977, pp. 8-10.
Williams, R. “Towards A Sociology of Culture”, Culture, Fontana, Glasgow, 1981, pp. 9-14.
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