Secondary sanctioning is described as when individuals of influence extend their authority whether it be legal rational or charismatic, the extent of this is that people can utilize their status to further impend sanctions outside of their jurisdiction or authority.The darker sides to prisons, is that the theoretical natures of panopticon to completely prevent inmates from acting out of line, more importantly none of the theories offer any indication to preventing those with power from acting out of line. A very ominous example comes in the form of prison sexual violence, a study in 2007 found that within sample group the prevalence of those who had witnessed some form of sexual violence was as high at 15.7 percent, and while new prison incentives by the national rape elevation commission claim are coming into practice claiming that sexual abuse within prisons is not an inevitable part of the incarceration possess, the statistics tend to argue differently. More damning evidence from mortality reports shows that in 2012 128 in 100,000 will die while within some form of incarceration, these statistics do not include corporate, but include death from general sickness to which they associated with overpopulation, but also from staff related injuries and prison violence.
What the statistics show is a dark figure of punishment in the sense that their prevalence is so high within prisons and generally ignored when discussing what punishment is yet these statistics were all caused within the incarceration system, implying that these factors may be part of the contemporary punishment system and therefore acting against the ideology of punishment of the min...
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...hat these theories show is the same predicament arises about the statement that was seen when looking at the first statement, both the Nordic countries and the capitalist countries situate in what could be considered as a contemporary time therefore it is impossible to look at the issue dichotomously, what can be concluded however is that certain countries like those who follow suite with America tend to be far more privatized the Nordic countries, implying that contemporary punishment as a whole is no more or less private, however certain countries with contemporary times are.
OECD. (n.d.). New Zealand in the OECD. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/government_finance/central_government/nz-in-the-oecd/justice.aspx - (OECD, n.d.)
Marx, Method and the Private Prison. Phillip J. Wood Queen 's University Kingston, Ontario e-mail: email@example.com]
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